BIO 377 Exam I

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tames38
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290946
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BIO 377 Exam I
Updated:
2014-12-15 08:47:59
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BIO 377 Exam1 Final
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science,medical physiology
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Exam I questions for BIO 377 at UMaine (Fall 2014).
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  1. Lateral inhibition is most closely associated with _________.
    border enhancement
  2. Depolarization of hair cells in the utricle occurs when _________.
    the hair cell bends toward the kinocilium
  3. The hair cells are embedded within the endolymph. Thus, when a potassium channel opens, potassium moves _________ the  cell, causing it to ________.
    into; depolarize
  4. A neural phenomenon that is believed to have a POSTsynaptic origin involving calcium is _________.
    post-tetanic potentiation
  5. The visual system is an excellent example of parallel processing: visual details are __________.
    transmitted along separate pathways to the primary visual cortex, where they are integrated
  6. The process whereby a sensory receptor converts a stimulus modality into a change in membrane potential is called _________.
    signal transduction
  7. If one personally perceives light to be increased by a factor of 4, the light was _________ in reality.
    100 times brighter
  8. What area of the brain controls language comprehension?
    Wernicke's area
  9. A __________ reflex involves a single synapse between two neurons.
    monosynaptic
  10. For the stretch reflex, the essential and primary neuron for muscle contraction is the _________.
    alpha motor neuron
  11. Viral or bacterial infections of the brain are most closely associated with which pathology?
    meningitis
  12. According to lecture notes, conscious spatial and manual manipulations are a product of _______.
    the right cortical hemisphere only
  13. Which of the following is most closely associated with metabolic receptors?

    A) enzyme cascades
    B) ion channel opening
    C) ion channel closing
    D) fast responses
    E) the neuromuscular junction (NMJ)
    A) enzyme cascades
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. Suprathreshold graded potentials within the neuron can generate ________ action potential(s) at the axon hillock, which allows for the __________ of the magnitude of the stimulus.
    multiple; frequency coding
  15. The synaptic delay is caused by ________.
    the time required for calcium entry to trigger exocytosis
  16. The mechanism of the A.P. that underlies the absolute refractory period is the __________.
    sodium inactivation gate
  17. The opening of Na+ channels causes a rapid ________ of Na+ that ________ the neuron's membrane.
    influx; depolarizes
  18. The myelin sheath that coats an axon acts to _______.
    reduce a membrane's ion permeability
  19. All of the following are associated with red skeletal muscles (in comparison to white) EXCEPT ___________.

    A) aerobic
    B) low resistance to fatigue
    C) more myoglobin
    D) low force-generating capacity
    E) slow
    B) low resistance to fatigue
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. Which below is NOT an adaptation of skeletal muscle observed in response to aerobic training?

    A) an increase in mitochondrial density
    B) an increase in the diameter of the skeletal muscle fibers
    C) an increase in capillary density
    D) an increase in the concentration of oxidative fibers
    E) an increase in the number of oxidative fibers
    B) an increase in the diameter of the skeletal muscle fibers
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. Once a skeletal muscle cell begins to shorten during an isotonic twitch contraction, _________.
    the amount of force generated by the muscle will remain constant
  22. The "(shortening) velocity" [or "speed of contraction"] vs skeletal muscle load curve resembles:
  23. Which of the following is NOT part of the process whereby skeletal muscles relax?

    A) A calcium pump actively removes calcium
    B) Sarcolemmal calcium channels open to allow the efflux of calcium
    C) A myosin-binding site on the actin molecule is blocked by tropomyosin
    D) Amount of calcium bound to troponin decreases
    E) The binding of calcium to a low-affinity site closes sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium channels
    B) Sarcolemmal calcium channels open to allow the efflux of calcium
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. What is the function of t tubules?
    They conduct action potentials from the sarcolemma to the interior of the muscle cell.
  25. During skeletal muscle contraction, all of the following normally occur EXCEPT:

    A) distance between z-lines (or z-disks) shortens
    B) H band shortens
    C) sarcomere shortens
    D) A band shortens
    E) I band shortens
    D) A band shortens
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. The binding of calcium to the subunit of troponin will directly (most immediately) result in _________.
    the movement of tropomyosin, thereby exposing the myosin-binding site on the actin molecule
  27. In order for crossbridge cycling to occur, the actin-myosin complex must be broken by the ________.
    binding of ATP to myosin
  28. The clinical manifestations of Myasthenia Gravis are caused by _________.
    autoimmune loss of ACh receptors
  29. What area of the brain initiates the fight-or-flight response by producing widespread activation of the sympathetic nervous system?
    hypothalamus
  30. Binding of acetylcholine to ________ receptors causes a _________ by opening channels that permit both sodium and potassium to permeate the membrane.
    nicotinic; depolarization
  31. All of the following are associated with the cholera toxin EXCEPT __________.

    A) Gi protein (intestinal)
    B) increase in cAMP levels
    C) Cl- release
    D) water loss from body
    E) death
    A) Gi protein (intestinal)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. Chronic exposure to a ligand (messenger) _________ the receptor population for that chemical messenger on the target cell.
    downregulates
  33. Which of the following classes of chemical messengers travels in the bloodstream to the target cell?

    A) hormone
    B) paracrine
    C) all of these
    D) neurotransmitter
    E) both paracrine and hormone
    A) hormone
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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