Studied the Tiv in Nigeria, wrote “Shakespeare in the Bush.” Storytelling is not universal.
Linguistic variation and social class
German philosopher, economist, sociologist, and revolutionary socialist. Socialism.
Studied liminality, created concept of communitas
Protestant Work Ethic
Challenged tenants of biological determinism (sex determines gender). Studied the Arapesh, who all have feminine behavior and roles, the Mundugumar, who all have masculine behavior and roles, and the Tchambul, who have behaviors and roles totally reversed.
Speaker’s shift from one language or dialect to another
pidgin languages (English+other) with developed grammatical rules and native speakers. Spoken in several Caribbean societies.
The existence of “high” (forma) and “low” (informal, familial) dialects of a single language.
Substitution of an inoffensive word for a more for a more unpleasant one
A set of words and distinctions that are particularly important to certain groups (those with particular foci of experience or activity), such as types of snow to Eskimos or skiers.
The set of structural rules which govern the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.
A term, such as “Mr.” or “Lord,” used with people, often by adding their names, to “honor” them.
Using the wrong word or form because it seems more correct or prestigious
The study of communication through body movements, stances, gestures, and facial expressions
Vocabulary; a dictionary containing all the morphemes in a language and their meanings
words that resemble each other in all but one sound, used to find phonemes
a meaningful part of a word
The study of form; used in linguistics (the study of morphemes and word constructions) and for form in general.
Significant sound contrast in a language that serves to distinguish meaning, as in minimal pairs
The study of sounds used in speech
Theory that different languages produces different ways of thinking. i.e. many Asian languages don’t make such a distinction between future and present tenses, so they are more forward thinking. Languages that have gender or partial genders often think of the differences between males and females more, and those with partial genders think about that less than those with full genders.
A language’s meaning system
Varying speech in different contexts
The arrangement and order of words in phrases and sentences
Basic set of principles and rules that underlie all languages
Black English Vernacular
(BEV) A rule-governed dialect of American English with roots in Southern English. BEV is spoken by African American youth and many adults in their casual, intimate speech – sometimes called “ebonics”
gender and language
One of Marx’s opposed classes; owners of the means of production (factories, mines, large farms, and other sources of subsistence)
Those who must sell their labor to survive; the antithesis of the bourgeoisie in Marx’s class analysis
The political, social, economic, and cultural domination of a territory and its people by a foreign power for an extended time
Guiding principle of colonialism, conquest, missionization, or development; and ideological justification for outsiders to guide native peoples in specific directions.
World Systems theory
Idea that a discernible social system, based on wealth and power differentials, transcends individual countries
art by appropriation
Things placed in that category (art) by others
art by intention
Artist meant thing created to be art
art as subversive
Hmong Needlework (for communication) and Graffiti as a political vehicle
The comparative study of the musics of the world and of music as an aspect of culture and society.
Belief in souls or doubles
Postcolonial, acculturative religious movements, common in Melanesia, that attempt to explain European domination and wealth and to achieve similar success magically by mimicking European behavior
Intense community spirit, a feeling of great social solidarity, equality, and togetherness; characteristic of people experiencing liminality together
functions of religion
Intellectual/cognitive (search for order and meaning), Emotional (explanations for misfortune, provide comfort, allay fears, reduce anxiety, exercise control), and Social (Maintain social order, promote social solidarity)
A tribe that practices potlatch?
Use of supernatural techniques to accomplish specific aims
Sacred impersonal force in Melanesian and Polynesian religions
Traditional , often sacred, narratives
The universal human need to convert differences of degree into differences of kind. Good and evil, white and black, old and young, high and low, etc.
Movements that occur in times of change, in which religious leaders emerge and undertake to alter or revitalize a society
rites of passage
Culturally defined activates associated with the transition from one place or stage of life to another
stages of rites of passage
Separation (people withdraw from ordinary society), liminality (“limbo” the in-between phase of passage rites, people have left one status but not yet entered the next), incorporation (People reenter society, having completed a rite that changes their status)
Cultural mixes, including religious blends, that emerge from acculturation – the exchange of cultural features when cultures come into continuous firsthand contact
Levi-Strauss. Universal pattern to the structure of myths. Shared structure of stories derived from a shared structure of the mind. Need to classify/impose order, create opposing categories (binary opposition) bridge between opposites.
Protestant work ethic
hard work, frugality and diligence as a constant display of a person's salvation in the Christian faith
Set apart as sacred and off-limits to ordinary people; prohibition backed by supernatural sanctions
A key ingredient in the religions of the Native Australians. Totems can be animals, plants, or geographic features associated with specific social groups, to which that totem is sacred or symbolically important. Totemism uses nature as a model for society.
social construction of illness
historical influences on the development of medical anthropology
Biological anthropology (biocultural perspective) early ethnographic fieldwork, culture and personality school (“National Character” lead to lots of cross cultural studies of mental illness), and international public health movement after WWII
alternative gender roles:
Native American: Two-spirit person, there are 20-30 two-spirit roles, biologically male or female, high status. India: Hijra, biologically male, feminine names, neither men nor women, perform female gender in some ways deploy male behavior in others. Oman: Xanith, biologically male, masculine names, legal rights of men, social interaction with women, not men or women, can become men. NADLE?
Pertaining to a group of conditions reflecting a discrepancy between the external genitals (penis, vagina, etc.) and the internal genitals (testes, ovaries, etc). Navajo: have Nadle who are spiritually gifted, act as shamens. Dominican Republic: Guevedoce: Male, but are sexually ambiguous and a separate category. Sambia (New Guinea): Kwolu-aatmwol.
sex, gender, sexuality
Sex is biological; gender is social and cultural, also performative
Mangaia in Polynesia. Open about talking about sex. Talk about it often. Their word for orgasm is the same as perfection.