anthro final

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  1. Franz Boas
    Studied Kwakiutl in the Pacific Northwest
  2. Laura Bohannan
    Studied the Tiv in Nigeria, wrote “Shakespeare in the Bush.” Storytelling is not universal.
  3. Noam Chomsky
    Universal Grammar.
  4. William Labov
    Linguistic variation and social class
  5. Claude Lévi-Strauss
  6. Karl Marx
    German philosopher, economist, sociologist, and revolutionary socialist. Socialism.
  7. Victor Turner
    Studied liminality, created concept of communitas
  8. Max Weber
    Protestant Work Ethic
  9. Margaret Mead
    Challenged tenants of biological determinism (sex determines gender). Studied the Arapesh, who all have feminine behavior and roles, the Mundugumar, who all have masculine behavior and roles, and the Tchambul, who have behaviors and roles totally reversed.
  10. code switching
    Speaker’s shift from one language or dialect to another
  11. creole
    pidgin languages (English+other) with developed grammatical rules and native speakers. Spoken in several Caribbean societies.
  12. diglossia
    The existence of “high” (forma) and “low” (informal, familial) dialects of a single language.
  13. euphemism
    Substitution of an inoffensive word for a more for a more unpleasant one
  14. focal vocabulary
    A set of words and distinctions that are particularly important to certain groups (those with particular foci of experience or activity), such as types of snow to Eskimos or skiers.
  15. grammar
    The set of structural rules which govern the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.
  16. honorifics
    A term, such as “Mr.” or “Lord,” used with people, often by adding their names, to “honor” them.
  17. hypercorrection
    Using the wrong word or form because it seems more correct or prestigious
  18. kinesics
    The study of communication through body movements, stances, gestures, and facial expressions
  19. lexicon
    Vocabulary; a dictionary containing all the morphemes in a language and their meanings
  20. minimal pairs
    words that resemble each other in all but one sound, used to find phonemes
  21. morpheme
    a meaningful part of a word
  22. morphology
    The study of form; used in linguistics (the study of morphemes and word constructions) and for form in general.
  23. Phoneme
    Significant sound contrast in a language that serves to distinguish meaning, as in minimal pairs
  24. phonology
    The study of sounds used in speech
  25. Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
    Theory that different languages produces different ways of thinking. i.e. many Asian languages don’t make such a distinction between future and present tenses, so they are more forward thinking. Languages that have gender or partial genders often think of the differences between males and females more, and those with partial genders think about that less than those with full genders.
  26. semantics
    A language’s meaning system
  27. style shifting
    Varying speech in different contexts
  28. syntax
    The arrangement and order of words in phrases and sentences
  29. universal grammar
    Basic set of principles and rules that underlie all languages
  30. Black English Vernacular
    (BEV) A rule-governed dialect of American English with roots in Southern English. BEV is spoken by African American youth and many adults in their casual, intimate speech – sometimes called “ebonics”
  31. gender and language
  32. Bourgeoisie
    One of Marx’s opposed classes; owners of the means of production (factories, mines, large farms, and other sources of subsistence)
  33. working class/proletariat
    Those who must sell their labor to survive; the antithesis of the bourgeoisie in Marx’s class analysis
  34. colonialism
    The political, social, economic, and cultural domination of a territory and its people by a foreign power for an extended time
  35. intervention philosophy
    Guiding principle of colonialism, conquest, missionization, or development; and ideological justification for outsiders to guide native peoples in specific directions.
  36. World Systems theory
    Idea that a discernible social system, based on wealth and power differentials, transcends individual countries
  37. art by appropriation
    Things placed in that category (art) by others
  38. art by intention
    Artist meant thing created to be art
  39. art as subversive
    Hmong Needlework (for communication) and Graffiti as a political vehicle
  40. ethnomusicology
    The comparative study of the musics of the world and of music as an aspect of culture and society.
  41. animism
    Belief in souls or doubles
  42. cargo cults
    Postcolonial, acculturative religious movements, common in Melanesia, that attempt to explain European domination and wealth and to achieve similar success magically by mimicking European behavior
  43. communitas
    Intense community spirit, a feeling of great social solidarity, equality, and togetherness; characteristic of people experiencing liminality together
  44. functions of religion
    Intellectual/cognitive (search for order and meaning), Emotional (explanations for misfortune, provide comfort, allay fears, reduce anxiety, exercise control), and Social (Maintain social order, promote social solidarity)
  45. Kwakiutl
    A tribe that practices potlatch?
  46. magic
    Use of supernatural techniques to accomplish specific aims
  47. mana
    Sacred impersonal force in Melanesian and Polynesian religions
  48. myth
    Traditional , often sacred, narratives
  49. binary oppositions
    The universal human need to convert differences of degree into differences of kind. Good and evil, white and black, old and young, high and low, etc.
  50. revitalization movements
    Movements that occur in times of change, in which religious leaders emerge and undertake to alter or revitalize a society
  51. rites of passage
    Culturally defined activates associated with the transition from one place or stage of life to another
  52. stages of rites of passage
    Separation (people withdraw from ordinary society), liminality (“limbo” the in-between phase of passage rites, people have left one status but not yet entered the next), incorporation (People reenter society, having completed a rite that changes their status)
  53. syncretism
    Cultural mixes, including religious blends, that emerge from acculturation – the exchange of cultural features when cultures come into continuous firsthand contact
  54. structuralism
    Levi-Strauss. Universal pattern to the structure of myths. Shared structure of stories derived from a shared structure of the mind. Need to classify/impose order, create opposing categories (binary opposition) bridge between opposites.
  55. Protestant work ethic
    hard work, frugality and diligence as a constant display of a person's salvation in the Christian faith
  56. taboo
    Set apart as sacred and off-limits to ordinary people; prohibition backed by supernatural sanctions
  57. totemism
    A key ingredient in the religions of the Native Australians. Totems can be animals, plants, or geographic features associated with specific social groups, to which that totem is sacred or symbolically important. Totemism uses nature as a model for society.
  58. social construction of illness
  59. historical influences on the development of medical anthropology
    Biological anthropology (biocultural perspective) early ethnographic fieldwork, culture and personality school (“National Character” lead to lots of cross cultural studies of mental illness), and international public health movement after WWII
  60. alternative gender roles:
    • Native American: Two-spirit person, there are 20-30 two-spirit roles, biologically male or female, high status. India: Hijra, biologically male, feminine names, neither men nor women, perform female gender in some ways deploy male behavior in others. Oman: Xanith, biologically male, masculine names, legal rights of men, social interaction with women, not men or women, can become men. NADLE?
    • xanith, hijra, “two-spirit” role, nadle, guevedoce
  61. intersex
    Pertaining to a group of conditions reflecting a discrepancy between the external genitals (penis, vagina, etc.) and the internal genitals (testes, ovaries, etc). Navajo: have Nadle who are spiritually gifted, act as shamens. Dominican Republic: Guevedoce: Male, but are sexually ambiguous and a separate category. Sambia (New Guinea): Kwolu-aatmwol.
  62. sex, gender, sexuality
    Sex is biological; gender is social and cultural, also performative
  63. “sex-positive”
    Mangaia in Polynesia. Open about talking about sex. Talk about it often. Their word for orgasm is the same as perfection.
  64. “sex-negative”
    Inis Beag in Ireland. Don’t talk about sex.
  65. feminization of poverty
Card Set:
anthro final
2014-12-07 23:51:56

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