Book: chp 20 blood vessels

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edeleon
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290954
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Book: chp 20 blood vessels
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2014-12-07 22:25:37
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blood vessels bio120
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Exam 4
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  1. What are the 3 layers blood vessels are composed of?
    • 1. tunica intima
    • 2. tunica media
    • 3. tunica externa
  2. What is the innermost tunic of a vessel wall that has an "intimate" contact with the blood in the lumen. What type of epithelium does it cotain that lines the lumen?
    • tunica intima
    • endothelium
  3. In vessels larger than about mm in diamete, this thin layr of loose CT lies just external to the endothelium
    • 1. tunica intima
    • 2. tunica media
    • 3. tunica externa
  4. What is the process called that is the contraction of the smooth muscle cells which decreases the diameter of the vessels.
    vasoconstriction
  5. What is the process of relaxation of smooth muscle cells whiich increases the vessel's diameter
    vasodilation
  6. What nerve fiber regulates vasodilation and vasoconstriction of blood vessels?
    vasomotor nerve fibers of the autonomic nervous system
  7. What in the blood vessels contribute to its elasticity and strength for resisting blood presure?
    the elastin and collagen
  8. What is the thickest layer in the blood arteries?
    Tunica media
  9. What is the outermost layer in most vessel walls? (2 names)
    tunica externa or tunica adventitia
  10. This tunic is a layer of CT in blood vessels that contains many collagen and elastic fibers. The cells and fibers run longitudinally.
    tunica externa
  11. These small vessels arise as tiny branches from the same vessel or rom other nearby vesels and nourih the outer half of the wall of larger vessels
    vasa vasorum
  12. T or F: all arteries carry oxygen-rich blood
    false: pulmonary arteries carry oxygen-poor blood
  13. What are the largest arteries that are near the heart?
    Elastic arteries: the aorta and its major branches
  14. How thick can the aorta be?
    diameters ranging from 2.5cm to 1cm
  15. What are elastic arteries sometimes called?
    conductive arteries
  16. What causes the storing effect of blood in elastic arteries?
    the elastic arteries expand in response to increased blood pressure, and when the heart relaxes, the arteries recoil, propelling the blood forward
  17. These arteries lie distal to the elastic arteries and supply groups of organs, individual organs and parts of organs.
    muscular (distributing) arteries
  18. T or F: the tunica media of muscular arteries is thicker relative to the size of the lumen
    true
  19. The smooth muscle of the tunica media of muscular arteries is between what 2 thick sheets of elastin?
    • internal and external elastic membrane
  20. What are the smallest arteries?
    arterioles
  21. Where in the body do capillaries receive digested nuutrients (a)? hormones(b)? nitrogenous wastes(c)?
    • a) small intestines
    • b) endocrine glands
    • c) kidneys
  22. What is the most common type of capillary and least permeable?
    continuous capillaries
  23. What are the gaps of unjoined membrane that allow small molecules to pass in and out of capillaries?
    intercellular clefts
  24. Capillaries are strengthened and stabilized by these spider-shaped cells.
    pericytes
  25. This type of capillary contains pores or "windows" where there are high rates of exchange of small molecules.
    fenestrated capillaries
  26. This type of capillary is considered wide and leaky, where its intercellular clefts are wide open. It occurs where there is an extensive exchange of LARGE materials, such as proteins and cells.
    sinusoid capillaries
  27. What are the 4 routes molecules pass in and out of capillaries?
    • 1. direct diffusion
    • 2. intercellular clefts
    • pinocytotic vesicles
    • 4. fenesteration

    • a) arteriole
    • b) metaarteriole
    • c) thoroughfare channel
    • d) precapillary sphincter
    • e) venule
  28. This part of the capillary bed regulates the flow of blood to the tissue.
    precapillary sphincters
  29. T or F: tendons and ligaments are richly vascularized
    False: they are poorly vascularized
  30. T or F: epithelia and cartilage contain no capillaries
    True: they receive nutrients indirectly via diffusion from nearby vascularized CTs.
  31. How much of the body's blood (%) can veins hold?
    65%
  32. Which part of the veins is thicker than when compared to the arteries?
    the tunica externa is thicker than the tunica media, where as in arteries, the media is the thicker layer.
  33. T or F: arteries have less elastin in their walls than do arteries
    False: veins do not need to dampen any pulsations like arteries do
  34. Where do arterial anastomoses occur?
    • around joints, where acive body movements may hinder bloow flow through one channel.
    • as well as abdominal organs, brain and heart.
  35. This interconnection of vessels provide alternative pathways, or collateral channels, for blood to reach a given body region.
    vascular anastomoses
  36. This is wghen the valves in veins weaken and fail
    varicose veins.
  37. T or F: pulmonary arteries ivides into several lobar arteries. 3 in the right lungt and  in the left lung.
    True
  38. What are the only branches of the ascending aorta?
    the right and left coronary arteries
  39. This is a fibrous emnant of a fetal artery called the ductus arteriosus, which connects the aortic arch and the pulmonary trunk.
    ligamentum arteriosum
  40. This disorder is the formation of clots in the veins of the lower extremity. The clot can detach and travel to the heart, and blocks a branch of the pulmonary artery.
    deep vein thrombosis of lower limb
  41. What usually causes deep vein thrombosis?
    sluggish flow of blood in veins in inactive and bedridden patients.
  42. This is a common disorder of the lower limb, characterized by inadequate drainage of venou blood from the limb, whose tissues become ischemic and vulnerable to damage and ulceration.
    venous disease
  43. This is a saclike widening or outocketing of an artery (or vein) that places the vessel at risk of rupturing.
    aneurysm
  44. This is a common complication of longterm diabees mellitus caused by elevated blood sugar levels which results in a thickened by leakyk capillary wall.
    microangiopathy of diabetes
  45. This is a congenital condition in which capillaries fail to develop in a certain location, so that an artery continues directly into a vein.
    ateriovenous malformation
  46. In this disease, the walls of our arteries become thicker and stiffer, and hypertension results
    atherosclerosis
  47. These bad cholesterols are attacted to the inflamed areas in essels damaged from inflammation, and acumulate there.
    LDLs (low-density lipoproteins)
  48. What is the fatty streak stage?
    When smooth muscle cells migrate from the tunica media take up the lipids of clogged arteries and become foam cells
  49. These are dead and dying foam cells
    fibrous or ahterosclerotic plaques
  50. When and where do the earliest blood vessels develop?
    From blood islands around the yolk sac in the 3 week embryo
  51. What cells do the first blood vessels consist of? from where do the other layers come from?
    endothelium: adjacent mesenchymal cells soon surround these tubes
  52. When are all major vessels in place during embryonic development?
    3rd month of development
  53. What are the 2 major differences of fetal and postnatal circulation?
    • 1. fetus supplies blood to the placenta so it can get its oxygen and nutrients from the mother
    • 2. little blood is sent around the pulmonary circuit because the fetus does not breathe
  54. What are the vessels called that carry blood to and from the placenta?
    umbilical vessels
  55. Where do the paired umbilical arteries branch from in the fetus?
    from the internal ilac arteries in the pelvis
  56. The liver of the fetus cannot process all of the returning blood from the placenta. Where is most of it diverted through?
    a shunt called the DUCTUS VENOSUS
  57. Since the lungs of a fetus are not inflated, where is blood diverted to from the pulmonary circuit? 2 parts
    • 1. foramen ovale: a hole from the right atrium to the left atrium, it is a valve with 2 flaps.
    • 2. Ductus arteriosus: a wide arterial shunt in the pulmonary trunk
  58. What is the term when the foramen ovale finally fuse together?
    fossa ovalis

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