History Final

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History Final
2014-12-08 23:53:55

History Final
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  1. Shogun
    • Powerful military leader under Koritomo
    • Was a system of government: increase the powers of central government and reduce the rival aristocratic clans to vassal status.
    • Although powerful the Shogun were still subject to the emperor who held 'divine authority'
  2. Demesne
    • Part of the manorial and vassal system
    • manor: an agricultural estate operated by the owning lord and his peasants
    • demesne is the land in which is retained by the lord
    • 1/3 to 1/2 of the land was cultivated for the lord but the rest was for the peasants themselves
  3. Vladimir of Kiev
    • Ruler of the Vikings in Rus-980 to 1015 AD
    • Married a Byzantine emperor's sister
    • 987: Made Christianity the official religion of he and his people.
    • 10th century Christianity became the model for Russian religious life
  4. Alexius Comnenos
    • 1081-1118 AD
    • Byzantine Emperor
    • Goes to Urban II and goes to southern France to gain supporters in the Crusades
  5. Anna Comnenos
    • Daughter of Alexius
    • Was very bright and wrote a book on her father's reign
    • She was able to study at the imperial University and sat in on her father's political affairs
  6. Corpus Iuris Civilis
    • "Body of Civil Law"
    • Enacted during the reign of Justinian- was the Code of Law (529)
    • 533: Digest and Institutes are added
    • Digest: writings of Roman jurists
    • Institutes: principles of Roman Law
    • Novels: edicts proclaimed during the Justinian's reign
  7. Empress Theodora
    • Actress/Prostitute turned Empress
    • Met Justinian when she was 25 and he was 40 and when his uncle died he made her empress (527)
    • Joint rule between the two
    • Started a convent for former prostitutes and was part of the building of the cathedral
    • Hagia Sophia: Church of the Holy Wisdom
  8. Battle of Crecy
    • Major battle of the Hundred Years War
    • 1346: Crecy, just south of Flanders, French attacked the English line but the English decimated the the French
    • English won with mostly foot soldiers on their side
  9. Battle of Agincourt
    1415: French lost 1500 men to the English and King Henry V achieved victory over northern France
  10. Michelangelo's David
    • Michelangelo: (1475-1564)
    • Was under the patronage of Lorenzo de Medici from 1449-1492
    • In 1500 he was asked to come to Rome
    • "David" white carara marble of the Biblical King David
    • Said to be "the most perfect rendering oft he male human form"
  11. Taille
    • The Hundred Year's War left France in destitution
    • King Louis XI (1461-1483) "the Spider" strengthened the use of the French annual direct tax- now was permanent and was imposed by imperial authority
    • Gave France a sound income
  12. Malacca
    • Emerged as a trading city in 15th century Located on the west coast of the Malay peninsula
    • Portuguese captured Malacca in 1511 by Admiral Alfonso de Albuquerque- block Arab trade wanted a way into the Spice Islands
    • 1595: The Dutch make their way into India and in 1641 the take the port city of Malacca
  13. Portolani
    • Detailed charts made by medieval navigators and mathematicians in the 13th century
    • Details on coastal contours, distance b/w ports, and compass readings
    • When sailors began to travel outside of European waters they began to realize that the earth had curvature
  14. encomienda system
    • Instituted by Queen Isabella
    • European settlers received grants of land and could collect tribute from the indigenous peoples and use them as laborers
    • They were supposed to protect the spiritual and material needs of the natives but they exploited them instead.
    • Thousands of natives in Latin America were brutally abused by the Spanish
  15. Manioc
    • Also known as the cassava or yucca plant
    • Staple food for the Americas and was introduced to Africa in the 17th century
    • Grows well in poor, dry soils and became 1/3 of population's staple in Africa
    • Can be dried into flour
  16. Pope Paul III
    • Was in charge of the reform of the Catholic Church after the Reformation
    • Council of Trent: 1545-1563
    • Scripture and tradition were affirmed equal
    • Both good works and faith were proclaimed necessary for salvation
    • Selling of indulgences was prohibited
    • The Inquisition
  17. Oliver Cromwell
    • Scottish Rebellion: 1640- Welsh and Scottish found common ground against the English
    • Cromwell united everyone who was against the king: common people, Puritans, Scots and were known as the Roundheads
    • Cavaliers: king, clergy, and nobles
    • Civil War: King is arrested and put on trial-executed
    • Cromwell becomes the "Lord Protector: of England
    • Renames England a 'Commonwealth'
    • Under Cromwell drinking, dancing, theater, and even being happy on Sundays is outlawed
  18. King Henry VIII
    • Church of England- wanted a male heir but none of them ever lived
    • Elizabeth: was her father's daughter but when she died she left no heir
    • Her cousin James VI of Scotland becomes James I of England
  19. James I
    • Firm believer in divine reign
    • Was a Calvinist but was forced to become Anglican by parliament through the people
    • James was rumored to be Catholic and homoseuxal
    • Had the King James Bible written
    • Died in 1625
  20. Charles I
    • 1625-1649
    • Was not viewed well by the people
    • Never consulted Parliament and in 1629 he dissolved parliament during his reign
    • Marries a French Catholic Princess and fires the Archbishop of Canterbury
    • 1649 was beheaded at the Tower of London
  21. Charles II
    • Son of Charles I is brought back form exile after Cromwell's son dies
    • Is not very well-liked either because he tries to make a secret deal with France to make England Catholic
  22. James II
    • Charles II's brother
    • James is a practicing Catholic and ignores the law that prohibits Catholics from holding office
    • The Glorious Revolution 1688: instead of killing their king they exile James in 1688 to France
  23. Mary
    • James II's daughter and is Catholic
    • Marry her to William of the House of Orange in Holland
    • He is a Calvinist but becomes Anglican
    • Joint rule: The Reign of William and Mary 1689-1702
  24. Reign of William and Mary
    • Monarchy is limited in it's authority
    • Parliament is the primary lawmakers- Bill of Rights
    • King cannot raise taxes or army without parliament consent
    • No army in peacetime, freedom of worship unless you're a Catholic
    • The Throne must always be held by a Protestant
  25. Succession Act of 1701
    Mary's younger sister would succeed her on the throne
  26. George I
    • Duke of Hanover in Germany
    • Never relocated to England when he was given the kingship
    • Neither did George II
    • George III moved
    • During this time Parliament grew stronger
  27. Thomas Hobbes
    • Theory on Government: strongest possible government; people are evil so gov. is needed
    • Leviathan (book by Hobbes): state need obedience and stability and the king will provide protection
  28. John Locke
    • Treatise of Civil Government: (1632-1724) All men possess natural rights because they are human
    • Only some rights are subject to the government such as life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness
  29. Chinese and Japanese writings
    • Chinese: Han characters
    • Japanese: Kangi characters
    • They look very similiar though
  30. Volkerwanderung
    people wandering-migration
  31. Germanic Tribes
    • pressured by Slavs (Russians, Poles, Czechs)
    • Visigoths: southern Gual (France)
    • Ostrogoths: Italy
    • Saxons: Britain
    • Vandals: Carthage
    • Roman Society ceases to exist
  32. Charlemagne
    • Est. empire larger than anyone in Europe
    • He wanted to be crowned a Roman Emperor
    • Being a Roman Emperor would carry a certain air and power with the name
  33. Iconoclasts
    • Isorian families grew up influenced by the Muslims
    • Began to think that there shouldn't be any images of God because Muslims found it irreverent
    • Constantine vs. Irene: Constantine wanted the icons to be removed but Irene, his mother doesn't
  34. Irene
    • When Constantine orders the images to be removed she blinds her son and throws him out of the city.
    • 797 AD: Irene becomes Empress
    • Charlemagne proposes marriage to Irene but she refuses
  35. Feudalism
    • Institution that extolls the values of a warrior
    • Nobles build castles but they are not just homes but refuge centers for peasants
  36. Normans
    • 1066: the Norse attack England
    • Battle of Hastings: King William beats King Harold and wants the people to swear allegiance to him not the nobles
    • William the Conqueror dies in 1087
  37. Philip IV
    • 1285-1314: 3 Estates
    • The Clergy: cardinals, bishops, priests
    • Nobility: aristocrats
    • Peasants: (Estates General)
    • Professionals are missing from the ranking but are just included in the 3rd estate
  38. Middle Class
    • bourgeoisie: burger= German
    • someone who dwells in the city
  39. The Crusades
    • First Crusade: 1096-1099 AD
    • An armed penitential expedition carried out i the name of Christ to rescue the Holy Land from the Sarisins
    • Second Crusade: 1147-1149 AD
    • Louis VII and King Conrad III (German)
    • Third Crusade: Richard Lionheart and Philip II
    • Children's Crusade: 1214 AD- 30,000 chilren recruited from all over Europe brought to Marsailles and taken to North Africa and sold to Muslims as slaves but they took in the kids as their own
  40. Black Death
    • 30 million people died
    • People begin to lose faith in God and the state
    • Blame the plague on the Jewish people
  41. Trade is...
    • Four things
    • Commerce
    • Settlement
    • Rule (Hegemony)
    • Dominion of the Seas
  42. Portugal
    • 1430-1480: Spices gold, porcelain, silk
    • Prince Henry: 1394-1460 AD- well-educated, exploration, founded a school of maritime studies; financed expeditions;
    • Lisbon: great international power
  43. 17 Article Constitution of Prince Shotoku
    • Who: Prince Shotoku
    • What: Chronicles of Japan
    • When: 604 AD
    • Where: Japan
    • Why: Finding a balance with others; three treasures- buddha, the doctrine, and the monastic order; must follow the emperors laws (mandate of heaven); no nepotism
    • Confucius taught of relationships with others and ones community- Shotoku speaks of that as well
  44. Germanic Customary Law: The Ordeal
    • Who: Arian minister and a Catholic deacon
    • What: the trial of hot water
    • When: 580 AD (Germanic Tribes)
    • Where: Germanic Kingdom
    • Why: Arian and deacon did not agree on the Holy Trinity
    • This shows that the Germanic governments wanted the people to stay obedient and show the possible consequences
  45. The Achievements of Charlemagne
    • Who: Einhard
    • What: The Life of Charlemagne
    • When: 790s-800s
    • Where: court of Charlemagne
    • Why: demonstrate all the good that Charlemagne had done in uniting the Germanic tribes
  46. University Students and Violence at Oxford
    • Who: Oxford students vs. townies
    • What: riot
    • Where: Oxford University
    • When: 13th century
    • Why: Both parties were responsible for the damage within the town; neither had obedience to their head official; the king needed educated men to draw up their documents and keep records
  47. A Byzantine Emperor Gives Military Advice
    • Who: Emperor Maurice of the Byzantine Empire
    • What: Strategikon- habits and fighting skills of enemies
    • When: 582-602
    • Where: Byzantine Empire
    • Why: If you had better insight or knowledge of your enemies one had a better chance of winning a battle
  48. A Western View of the Byzantine Empire
    • Who: Bishop Liudprand of Cremona
    • What: diplomatic mission to Constantinople
    • When: 949 AD
    • Where: Constantinople
    • Why: The byzantine used opulence and extravagant features in order to awe or give the illusion to visitors that they were in a entirely different world they had come from
  49. Boniface VIII's Defense of Papal Supremacy
    • Who: Boniface VIII
    • What: Unam Sanctum- statement of papal supremacy
    • When: 1302AD
    • Where: Rome
    • Why: secular monarchies were differing from the teachings of the church
  50. The Great City of Timbuktu
    • Who: Leo Africanus-great explorer of his time
    • What: Timbuktu- trade route through the Sahara
    • When: 1526
    • Where: Timbuktu
    • Why: had a great amount of natural and made resources in the city. Because of these commodities the city was naturally extravagant and wealthy
  51. A Reforming Debate: Conflict at Marburg
    • Who: Luther vs. Zwingli
    • What: the disagreement of the actuality oft he Lord's Supper
    • When: 1529
    • Where: Marburg, Germany
    • Why: Luther in believed in the actuality of Christ's words at the Last Supper (bread and wine changed to body and blood of Christ) but Zwingli saw it figuratively and sees Christ's words as being a representation
  52. Peter the Great Deals with A Rebellion
    • Who: Peter the Great
    • What: The Rebellion of the Streltsy (elite military unit in Moscow)
    • When: 1698
    • Where: Moscow, Russia
    • Why: By torturing and killing about 250 people Peter showed that he would stop at no lengths to get answers and seek revenge
  53. The Bill of Rights (England)
    • Who: The Parliment
    • What: The Bill of Rights
    • When: 1688
    • Where: England
    • Why: Parliament wanted to gain more power limit the regency powers.