Final CJUS 320
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Techniques of neutralization
Sykes and Matza says there are 5 techniques in neutralization;Denial of responsibility: individuals may claim they were influenced by forces outside themselves and that they are not responsible or accountable for their behavior. For example, many youth blame their peers for their own behavior.Denial of injury: this is the rationalization that no one was actually hurt by their behavior. For instance, if someone steals from a store, they may rationalize this by saying that the store has insurance, so there is no direct victim.Denial of the victim: Offenders see themselves as avengers and the victims as the wrongdoers. For example, offenders believe that a person who disrespects or “disses” them deserve what he or she gets, even if ti means serious injury.Condemning of the condemners: Offenders claim the condemners (usually the authorities who catch them) are hypocrites. For instance, one may claim that police speed on the highway all the time. so everyone else is entitled to drive higher than the speed limit.Appeal to higher loyalties: Offenders often overlook the norms of conventional society in favor of the rules of a belief they have or a group to which they belong. For example, people who kill doctor who perform abortions tend to see their crimes as above the law because they are serving higher power.
characteristics of self-control (low vs high)
A set of policies related to labeling theory that attempt to fer an offender out of the formal justice system as quick as possible; an offender might perform a service or enter a rehabilitation program instead of serving time in jail or prison
knows as the D’s Diversion, decriminalization, and deinstitutionalization. Is the lessening of punishment recommended for non violent offenders to reduce stigma and penalty related to an offence.
Avoiding incarceration for juveniles offending in running away, truancy..etc. Federal laws were passed that ordered all youth status offenders to be removed from incarcerated facilities.
dramatization of evil:
dramatization of evil: We act out to label attached to us.
Results in individual confirming their status as criminals or delinquents by increasing the frequency or seriousness of their illegal activity.
lemert typically youths, commit primary deviance which is not serious (non-violent) and non frequent, but happen to be caught by police and are subsequently labeled.
According to lemert if label or stigma was not placed on a young or first time offender then the more serious offender and frequent offending.
theorist should simply take the findings found for male offending and generalize them to females
Gender ratio issue:
Examines why females so often commit less serious, less violent offences than males.
Liberal Feminism:Differences between males and females in offending due to lack of female opportunity.
Critical radical feminism
emphasizes the idea that many societies (such as the U.S) are based on a structure of patriarchy in which males dominate virtually every aspect of society.
Men control economic success in our country, as well as every country in the world, and that this flow from capitalism. Men ownership and control of the means of economic production focusing on economic structure.
focus on control of reproductive systemwomen should take control of their own bodies and their reproductive functions in order to control their criminality.
understanding women as a group is impossible because every person experience is unique-they believe there is no point in measuring anything-model based on anti-science and contributed nothing to study of women and crimes
-a path someone takes in life often due to lfe transitions.
events that are important in alternation trajerorites toward or against crime such as marriage, employmentlife course persistent offenders-4-8% most viloet and chronic offenders-commit vast majority of the serious, violent offenses in any society( such as murder, rape, armed robbery)-offending is caused by an interaction between neurological problems and the criminological environments and disadvantages in which they are raised in-
adolescence limited offenders
make up most of the general public and include all persons who committed offenses when they were teenagers or young adultsoffending largely caused by association with peers and desire to engage in activities that were exhibited by adults trying to besmall amount 1-3% of ovulation are non offenders who do not have normal relations with their peers and do not offend at all, even adolescences.
one theory will come before or after another in terms of temporal ordering of casual factors-tends to propose a certain ordering of the component theory that are being emerged-better used for theories that focus more on remotes causes of crime - two or more theories that focus on more immediate causes of crime would be harder to combine ex: weak social bond—>peer associations—> crime
-two or more theories are considered parallel explanations depending on what type of case is being considered-allows to look @ two different cases-two theories can be accurate and depending on what type of individual or criminal activity is being considered-ex: low self esteem and rational choice theory-given classifications by certain criterion -ex: impulsive vs. planned
can take two formstheortical reduction= one theory (A) contains more abstract or general assumptions of another theory (B), -which is not reducingTheortical synthesis= abstracting more general assumptions from theories A&B allowing parts of both theories to incorporate in a new theory C, brings together previous independent models, to result in a thew theory
-a type of theoretical integration in which a theoretical perspective consumes or uses conceptsfrom many other theoretical models
there exist two opposing groups: one wishing to preserve the status quo and the other attempting to modify existing relationships.
- Criminal behavior is the course taken by less powerful groups who could not promote and defend their interests and purposes in the legislative processCriminal behavior is a result of conflicting group interestsGenerally, these types of crimes include:
- 1) Crimes arising from political protest
- 2) Crimes resulting from labor disputes
- 3) Crimes arising from disputes between and within competing unions
- 4) Crimes arising from racial and ethnic clashes
- Does not explain more individual types of behavior
- claimed that such acts of crimes “ domination and repression”, committed by the elite to keep the lower classes down or to protect their property, wealth and power such as white collar crimes.
- 1 (Definition of Crime): Crime is a definition of human conduct that is created by authorized agents in a politically organized societyProposition
- 2 (Formulation of Criminal Definitions): Criminal definitions describe behaviors that conflict with the interests of the segments of society that have the power to shape political policyProposition
- 3 (Application of Criminal Definitions): Criminal definitions are applied by the segments of society that have the power the shape the enforcement and administration of criminal lawProposition
- 4 (Development of Behavior Patterns in Relation to Criminal Definitions): Behavior patterns are structured in segmentally organized society in relation to criminal definitions, and within this context persons engage in actions that have relatively high probabilities of being defined as criminal.Proposition
- 5 (Construction of Criminal Conceptions): Conceptions of crime are constructed and diffused in the segments of society be various means of communicationProposition
- 6 (The Social Reality of Crime): The social reality of crime is constructed by the formulation and application of criminal definitions, the develop of behavior patterns related criminal definitions, and the construction of criminal conceptions.
Society is characterized by conflict arising among various groups seeking to establish or maintain control over one another
Feminist Theory of Crimes
Reaction to the lack of theorizing about why females commit crime and why they tend to be treated differently by the Criminal Justice System.Theories of why girls and women engage in illegal activities were primarily based on false stereotypes.
Developmental Theories of Crime
Tend to look at the individual as the unit of analysis, and such models focus on the various aspects of the onset, Frequency, intensity, duration, distance and other aspects of the individual’s criminal career.**Onset of offending** – when the offender first begins offendingDesistance – when an individual stops committing crimeFrequency – refers to how often the individual offendsIntensity - degree of seriousness of the offenses he or she commitsDuration – the length of an individual’s criminal career
Sampson & Laub’s Developmental Model
Reanalysis of original data collected by Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck in the 1940sEmphasized the importance of certain events and life changes, which can alter an individual’s decisions to commit (or not commit) criminal activityEarly antisocial tendencies among individuals, regardless of social variables, are often linked to later adult criminal offending
Moffit’s Developmental Taxonomy
Moffitt’s framework distinguishes two types of offenders:Adolescence Limited – make up most of the general public and include all persons who committed offenses when they were teenagers or young adultsOffending largely caused by association with peers and a desire to engage in activities that were exhibited by the adults they are trying to beSuch offending is like a rite of passage and quite normal among all people who have normal social interactions with their peers in teenage or young adult years.
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