Micro LAB review

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Hbottorff
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291010
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Micro LAB review
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2014-12-09 12:32:21
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  1. What is done before students leave the lab
    Thoroughly wash bench with the supplied disinfectant before starting lab and before leaving lab.Wash hands before leaving lab, and face (if needed) at the end of each lab.
  2. What kind of personal protective equipment do students wear?
    Wear sensible clothing and keep long hair tied back if working with flames.Wear gloves when working with microorganisms.Wear the personal protective equipment supplied by the school.
  3. How are tables or benches treated before and after performing an exercise?
    Thoroughly wash bench with the supplied disinfectant before starting lab and before leaving lab.
  4. What is a causative agent of stomach and duodenal ulcers?
    Helicobacter pylori
  5. What is the name of the bacteria found in yogurt
    • mixture of Streptococcus and Lactobacillus species.
    • Bifidobacterium
  6. What is aseptic technique?
    The method used to prevent this contamination and spread of microbes
  7. How do we aseptically transfer bacteria into media
    Sterilizing instruments used to transfer microbes from one place or media to another and working as quickly and proficiently as possible is also important. Sterile objects should never touch the laboratory table. Microbiologists use an incinerator or Bunsen burners to sterilize the tools used for transferring microbes.
  8. How do you handle the cap of the test tube?
    pick up the cap of the sterile broth tube with the same hand between your third & fourth fingers
  9. what is sub-culturing
    used when microbes are transferred from one medium to another
  10. what is pure culture
    medium containing the growth of only one type of microbe
  11. what is mixed culture
    medium containing the growth of two or more types of microbes.
  12. how do you make a streak plate using the quadrant method
    ⦁    Turn your plate one quarter turn and make several passes inoculating another small section of the plate making sure that you overlap a small portion of the original section . repeat
  13. how is a microscope carried
    you hold it firmly by the 'Arm' and 'Base' and when walking with it it should be held near your chest
  14. what lense should be cleansed last
    100x
  15. how do you find the total magnification
    the formula for the total magnification of a microscope is the objective lens magnification times the ocular lens magnification.
  16. what is used with the oil immersion lens for it to work
    immersion oil
  17. how do you focus a specimen
    with the coarse or fine adjustment knobs
  18. what is the purpose of staining bacteria
    to see the simple shapes and morphology of the specimen
  19. how do stains bind with bacteria
    dyes are positively charged and will bind with the negative charges on the cells’ surfaces and some internal parts
  20. what reagents are used in the gram staining technique
    • crystal violet
    • iodine
    • decolorizer (alcohol)
    • safranin
  21. what is the primary stain
    crystal violet
  22. which stain is the mordant
    iodine
  23. what stain is the counter stain
    safranin
  24. what stain is the decolorizer
    alcohol
  25. what is the difference between gram pos and gram neg bacteria
    • gram pos stains blue/violet
    • gram neg stains pink
  26. what factors effect false Gram reactions
    • thick smear
    • too much alcohol
    • old culture
  27. what is a virulence factor
    • they protect the bacterial cell from losing water and essential nutrients
    • such as capsul or slime layer
  28. what molecular substances are found in capsuls
    glycocalyx
  29. List 4 microbes that produce slime or glycocalyx and their associated diseases
    • Streptococcus pneumoniae
    • Streptococcus salivarius
    • Streptococcus sanguis
    • Streptococcus mutans
  30. what is capable of causing lung infection and death in mice
    S. pneumonia is capable of causing infection and death to mice when it is encapsulated.
  31. what is the name of the dominant bacteria found in babies mouths
    in 6-9 month old babies until the eruption of teeth allows Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus mutans to survive.
  32. what are biofilms and how are they formed
    Capsules, slime(s), and fimbrae are virulence factors that allow microbes to grow as biofilms
  33. what is another name for the schaeffer-fulton method
    spore stain method
  34. what are the 2 genus names of bacteria that form spores
    aerobic genus Bacillus and the anaerobic genus Clostridium
  35. how is dye forced into the endospore
    . By applying heat and pressure from steaming water the spore coat will expand allowing the dye to penetrate the spore
  36. what does clostridium botulinum cause
    food poisoning
  37. what does clostidium tetani cause
    when present in a wound may germinate and release potent toxins as it grows leading to lock jaw.
  38. what does clostrdium perfringens cause
    cause gas gangrene.
  39. what is another name for the acid fast exercise
    ziehl-neelson method
  40. what are two acid fast bacteria
    Mycobacterium and Nocardia
  41. what does acid fast mean
    • Acid fast microbes will appear red
    • . The hydrophobic cell walls of acid fast bacteria will repel the acid alcohol and will not be decolorized
  42. what is enriched media
    is media that contains an increased concentration of specific nutrients used to encourage more growth of specific microbes
  43. what is differential media
    type of media which distinguishes one type of microbe from another on the same media through the use of special nutrients, chemicals or indicators which change color during specific metabolic processes
  44. what is selective media
    used for the growth of specific types of organisms because it contains chemicals which inhibit the growth of other types of organisms
  45. what is a colony
    a visible mass of cells grown from a single microbial cell which has divided many times.
  46. what is normal flora
    Normal flora includes microbes that colonize our bodies and are necessary for good health.
  47. selective for the growth of gram negative microbes and contains crystal violet and bile salts which inhibit the growth of gram positive microbes. what type of media?
    MacConkey agar (Mac)
  48. ___contains 7.5% NaCl which is selective for Staphylococci and inhibits Streptococci.____is also differential for microbes which ferment mannitol, a carbohydrate.____contains the indicator phenol red which turns yellow if the microbe(s) ferments mannitol.
    MSA
  49. ____is an enriched media which contains 5% sheep blood. also is differential on the basis of the ability of an organism to hemolyze red blood cells.
    Blood Agar
  50. is the incomplete lysis or breakdown of the red blood cells and this appears as a green halo around the colony.
    Alpha hemolysis
  51. the complete lysis of red blood cells which appears as a clear zone around the colonies.
    Beta hemolysis
  52. when there is no lysis of the red blood cells.
    Gamma hemolysis
  53. contains crystal violet and bile salts which inhibit the growth of gram positive bacteria.
    Mac
  54. contains dyes which are selective for Gram negative organisms because they inhibit the growth of most gram positive microbes. The dyes eosin and methylene blue also make this agar a differential medium because lactose fermentation produces colonies that are deep purple or pink with dark centers. Some gram negative organisms produce large amounts of lactic acid which will precipitate the dyes and produce a green metallic sheen. Some colonies which are in fact colorless may appear purple if they are transparent.
    Eosin methylene blue (EMB)
  55. an agar used to identify Enterococci from other Streptococci. Bile agar is selective for certain gram positive bacteria because it contains sodium azide which inhibits gram negative microbes. Oxgall (dehydrated bile) inhibits the growth of gram positive bacteria other than Enterococci. Bile agar is also differential because it contains esculetin which during turns dark brown or black when it reacts with iron salts produced by Enterococci.
    Bile esculin enterococcosel  agar (Bile)
  56. is a liquid media used to determine the oxygen tolerance of bacteria.
    Thioglycollate (Thio)
  57. how does temp effect the growth of an organism
    Each microbe has an optimal temperature at which they will grow best
  58. If a cell is placed in ____environments (less solute concentration) water will enter the cell causing it to swell and possibly burst.
    hypotonic
  59. When a normal cell is placed in a ______environment (greater solute concentration) it will tend to lose water and shrink
    hypertonic
  60. When normal cells are in an_____environment homeostasis is maintained.
    isotonic
  61. _____grow between 0 degrees Celsius and 25 degrees Celsius
    psychrophiles
  62. _______grow between 10 degrees Celsius and 47 degrees Celsius,
    Mesophiles
  63. _______will grow at relatively high temperatures ranging from 45 degrees Celsius and above.
    Thermophiles
  64. Some microbes require high concentrations of salt to be present inside the cell in order to survive; they are called
    halophiles.
  65. Other organisms that are capable of growing in the presence of high salt and sugar concentrations are called
    osmophiles.

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