351B final exam

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351B final exam
2014-12-15 18:05:34
351B baker

Good luck everybody!
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  1. haydn was unique in his career why?
    last great composer to have a full time patron

    took advantage of the new public concert life and made lots of money
  2. how did haydn's career start
    • he was a boy soprano
    • - when his voice broke he couldn't make money
    • - he had his big break when he was hired by the esterhazy family
  3. once haydn was hired by the esterhazy family how did his career progress
    prince niklaus took over and he played the baryton

    haydn wrote tons of pieces for the barytone for the prince

    also wrote lots of opera for the family

    wrote music for many occasions for the family 

    haydn did well here because he was isolated and allowed to work on his own
  4. how did haydn publish his music
    he would publish his music outside the family to get the royalties for the music 

    he eventually got the rights for his music and begins to take lots of public commissions as the court system begins to crumble
  5. why did Haydn leave esterhazy
    • prince anton came into power and shrunk the music programs 
    • -haydn went to vienna
  6. where did haydn go after he left esterhazy
    • he went to vienna
    • then was approached by Johann peter solomon
    • - he wanted haydn to write symphonies for london
    • -haydn went and wrote 12 symphonies that took london by storm
  7. where did haydn go after london
    was rehired back at esterhazy and writes choral music and string quartets
  8. what were haydn's best generas
    string quartets and symphonies
  9. what was haydn's major influences
  10. what was haydn's treatment of sonata form
    mono-thematic sonata form
  11. talk about haydn's string quartets
    main trend is he moves from treble dominated to all voices being equal

    • early
    • -homophonic
    • -short
    • -loves surprise
    • - uses silence very well
    • likes harmonic twists and turns and delays the resolution to V

    • middle
    • - mozart appears
    • - haydn incorperates opera 
    • - more virtuosic music
    • -replaces minuet and trio with scherzo
    • - very repetitive
    • - "pop theme"
    • -still treble dominated

    • high
    • -strong linkages between movements 
    • -each voice is equal
  12. talk about haydn's symphonies
    • wrote 40 symphonies 
    • - generally in 4 movements
    • always had lots of unison surprise, humor, and "pop tunes" 
    • - style dramatically changed during his strum and drag period 
    • >much more minor
  13. how many choral masses did haydn write
    • symphonic in scope with large orchestras
  14. what was the major theme of Mozart's career
    • caught in the middle
    • - too late for a full time patron and too early to make money to be a free agent
  15. talk about the beginning of Mozart's life
    • son of a prominent violinist 
    • - mozart began playing very young and his father supported him becoming a "stage father"
    • - mozart toured all over Europe with his father

    he also composed when he was extremely young and by his childhood he was mastering several genres and infused his style with the singing allegro
  16. continue talking about Mozart's career after he got his 12 year old opera comission
    it doesn't go well and he pisses off the ruler of the HRE

    • mozart moves to italy
    • -and learned to work with opera singers here wrote a set of string quartets during this time

    • he returned to salzburg and hated it
    • - he worked for archbishop Colloredo who wanted short masses 
    • - mozart asked for a vacation and was granted it and we went to Mannheim and Munich and Paris
  17. When mozart left stugart on vacation what happened
    • he went to mannheim and munich and paris
    • - he wrote lots of music and had a great time
    • - he got really close to the elector in mannheim and wanted to work there
    • > elector moved so mozart went home
    • >his mother dies and it takes 3 months for him to tell his father
    • -he is back in salts burg working when the old elector from munich wants him to write an opera 
    • - he goes and writes it then returns
    • >he got fired from salts burg
    • he goes to vienna and becomes a freelance composer
  18. what happens when mozart moves to vienna
    • he becomes an instant success
    • gets married and has lots of commissions
    • he got a gambling and drinking problem but he never stopped wiring music and it was still amazing
  19. what were mozart's best generas
    • keyboard music
    • - presents mosaics of themes
    • - and near modulations to build anticipation
    • opera
    • - arias fit the singer like a glove
    • - extremely good ensemble writer
    • - he becomes buddies with Lorenzo da ponte
  20. what was one overarching sentence that sums up beethoven's career?
    first successful free agent (not operatic)

    - he took advantage of the new system of patronage
  21. was Beethoven inventing generas?
    no he was taking mature genres and stamped them with his mark

    - he personalized genres Haydn and Mozart perfected
  22. how did beethoven view his music and were the publishers/public enjoying his music?
    music was his legacy

    publishers competed for his music because it was so popular
  23. why did the system of patronage develop that allowed beethoven to succeed
    • french revolution happens
    • minor nobility move to vienna
    • - they hold parties and demand music

    • industrial revolution occurs
    • - you get a class of non noble rich who want music 

    these people commissioned music, studied with composers and musicians and hired them for public and private concerts
  24. what were beethoven's 5 periods
    • Bonn
    • Early Vienna
    • Transitional 
    • Heroic
    • Late
  25. what was beethoven's bonn period
    everything he wrote till 1792

    • - wrote lots of material he would use later
    • - wasn't truly innovating yet
  26. Beethoven's early vienna period
    • churns out tons of music 
    • moved to vienna 
    • studied with haydn in vienna
    • wrote the Pathetique sonata
  27. Beethoven's Transitional Period
    • Deafness is getting worse
    • all compositions are brand new (no old ideas) 
    • doesn't compose as much but they are amazing 
    • -completes many piano concertos
    • -starts many symphonies
    • - starts his string quartets
    • begins to mess with formal aspects and makes each movement equally important and blurs some of sonata form

    • ends with beethoven's trip to the countryside in Heligenstadt
    • - contemplates sucicide but he doesn't commit it because he knows he is a great composer and he needs to be great
    • - he vows to become the greatest composer who ever lived
  28. Beethoven's Heroic Period
    • symphony 3-8
    • music is much more weighted and looks toward the romantic
    • begins after he returns from Helignenstadt and writes his 3rd symphony
    • - revolutionizes symphonies
    • Meetes his major patron Archduke Rudolf
    • - he with friends give beethoven a whole bunch of money that allows him to compose whatever the hell he wants and gives him security

    • Features expansion of structures
    • -alternate keys besides 5
    • -expands the "free" sections of sonata form
    • -full orchestra
    • -long periods of harmonic stasis
    • - evolving themes
    • - long spans of dissonant harmonies

    period ends with the unsent "Immortal beloved letter"
  29. Beethoven's Late period
    • Starts with Hammner Cavalier sonata 
    • 1818-27
  30. Beethoven's best generas
    • Took the piano sonata to new realms 
    • symphonies
  31. influences for beethoven's work
    • his personal self
    • his emotions and life events
  32. how was beethoven's sonata form
  33. String quartet No 33 no 2
    • Haydn 
    • String quartet

    • haydn's answer to mozart's string quartets
    • more equal instruments
    • manipulates shit
    • dynamic variation
    • strong relationships between movement and replaces minuet with scherzo
  34. string quartet op 76 no 3
    haydn string quartet

    • emperor quartet 
    • each voice was equal 
    • lots of emotion an depth
    • mono thematic sonata
  35. stymphony 92
    • haydn 
    • symphony

    • written in vienna for oxford
    • gift for the doctorate he revieced 
    • starts in one family in the orchestra and expands

    • monothemeatic sonata form
    • terinary form
    • minuet and trio
    • bithematic sonata form
  36. creation
    • Haydn 
    • oratorio
    • patterned after handel's messiah
    • von sweeten was the librettist 
    • english is really akward 
    • very chromatic and has a very active orchestra
    • pulls solo's out of the orchestra
  37. Piano sonata in F major
    • Mozart
    • piano sonata
    • singng allegro style
    • still gallant 

    • multithemeatic sonata form
    • development has a new theme
  38. Piano Concerto in A
    • Mozart 
    • Piano concerto

    • singing allegro
    • piano in dialogue with orchestral soloists
    • development starts with a new theme
  39. symphony no 41 in C M
    • Mozart Symphony
    • jupiter

    • criticized for not being counterpuntal enough so this is his response
    • - 5 part fugue

    inspired by Fux's counterpoint textbook and Bach

    • equal movments
    • timpani and trumpet
  40. Don Giovanni
    • Mozart
    • opera
    • del ponte
    • comic opera but very serious
  41. Piano sonata op13
    Beethoven piano sonata

    • pathatiuqe 
    • into material reappears
    • wide dynamic range
    • plays with the transition to the b section
    • plays with diminished hamonies
  42. Symphony no 3
    Beethoven symphony

    • influenced by french revolution
    • sits on dissonance- harmonically very daring
    • revolutionized the symphony
    • lots of new themes
    • developes transitions
    • starts his heroic period
  43. String quartet in F op 59
    • Beethoven 
    • string quartet

    dedicated to razumovsky who was the russian ambassador to vienna

    extreamly important to beethoven's compositional career 

    all voices completely equal
  44. Talk about the history of the symphony
    • precoursers
    • -concerti 
    • -concert overtures
    • -Opera Overtures (italian) 

    • milan
    • - started off as indendependant orchestra pieces by sammartini originally only for strings
    • - they were short and simple with simple texture and form
    • - fast slow fast movement order

    • mannheim
    • - run by carl theodore who built the largest and most virtuosic orchestra ever which was usually used for opera but was used for the symphony in its spare time.
    • - concertmaster/conductor was Johann stamitz who had regular rehearsals, uniform bowings juetures and articulation, and developed dynamics which created effects like the mannheim steamroller
    • - you get 4 movement symphonies in bi thematic sonata form

    • berlin
    • - Emphansinkite enters the 2nd mvt of symphonies

    • vienna
    • - synthesizes all the national traditions
    • - emphasis on development
    • - you get the 4 movement symphony in its modern movement form

    • haydn
    • -pulls soloists out of the orchestra
    • -minuet and trio become country dances
    • -uses surprise and silence to great effect
    • - likes using pop tunes
    • -has themes that pervade the entire symphony
    • -larger orchestration
    • - london symphonies are the pinnacle of this change

    • mozart
    • - was criticized for his little development and he did not write many symphonies

    • Beethoven
    • - revolutionized the symphony
    • - more dissonant harmony with more modulation possibilities 
    • - longer development sections that develop every bit of material not just the main themes
    • - much larger orchestra 
    • - breaks down form 
    • - themes evolve during the piece