What is the term for the first menstrual flow? When do physical changes occur? When is the usual onset of puberty? What is the cycle like during menarche? What is the education needed for girls going through menarche?
approx. 2 years before menarche
onset: 8-13 years
length is irregular and unpredictable
pads/tampons; hygiene needs
When is puberty complete?
when the menstrual cycle becomes regular
What is the most common reproductive problem?
What 3 dysfunctions cause menstrual irregularities?
What is amenorrhea? What is menorrhagia? Metrorrhagia? Dysmenorrhea?
amenorrhea: primary-no menses by age 14 with no sex characteristics; no menses by age 16 with sex characteristics; secondary- no menses in 6 moths in a woman who has had a normal menstrual cycle
Menorrhagia: menstrual bleeding that is excessive in number of days and amount of blood
Metrorrhagia: bleeding between periods or after menopause
Dysmenorrhea: painful menstruation
What is PMS/PMDD?
premenstrual syndrome; a combination of emotional and physical symptoms that occur during the luteal phase(2 weeks before menstruation) and diminish after menstruation begins;
What are the physical and emotional symptoms of PMS?
PMS: 1-3 symptoms that occur in luteal phase of at least 3 consecutive cycles; symptoms are relieved when menstruation begins
PMDD: 5 or more symptoms; relieved by menstruation; occurring during most cycles over past year; markedly interferes with work, school and or relationships
What is the treatment of PMS?
psychological evaluation: psychological symptoms present during entire cycle but intensify during premenstrual time is not PMS/PMDD but indicates an underlying metal disease that needs psychiatric evaluation
Pharmocological: calcium, prostaglandin inhibitors; selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (current theory is PMS due to decreased serotonin levels); ovulation suppression only f SSRIs are ineffective
What are the different kinds of menstrual irregularities?
Hypoenorrhea: normal intervals but decreased flow
Oligomenorrhea: cycle > 40 days; irregular flow
Polymenorrhea: cycle< 22 days; flow may or may not be not be normal
menometrorrhagia: regular or irregular flow; excessive bleeding either in amount or duration
What are STDs?
Spread through sexual contact; intimate contact with genitals, mouth or rectum
may cause pain, scarring or genitourinary structures, infertility, birth defects, nervous system damage, cancer, damage to other organs, death
Can have profound social and psychological impact
more than 50 diseases and syndromes associated with STDs
What is the best way to prevent STDs?
What is the teaching involved with education of STDs?
Teach signs and symptoms
explain diagnostic studies
teach methods to prevent spread of infections (condoms)
importance of completing treatment
importance of treating partners
What is PID
Pelvic Inflammatory disease
Infection of upper reproductive tract
can spread spread to peri area; chlamydia and gonorrhea are most common causes