Book: Chp 24 Urinary system
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The main function of this organ is to maintain the purity and chemical constancy of the blood and other extracellular body fluids
What are the 3 main waste products excreted in urine?
- 1. Urea: breakdown of amino acids
- 2. Uric acid: from turnover of nucleic acids
- 3: creatine: breakdown of creatine phosphate
Other than disposing of wastes and excess ions, this organ also regulates the volume and chemical makeup of the blood's balance of salts and water
Are the kidneys retroperitoneal or subperitoneal?
In the kidneys, this is at the kidney's surface ad maintains its shae and forms a barrier to inhibit the spread of infection
This contains a layer of fat which cushions the kidney against blows and keeps it in place.
renal fascia: perirenal and pararenal fat layers
How many lobes can be in each pyramid of the kidney?
Which vertebrae do the renal arteries branch between?
between the 1st and 2nd lumbar vertebrae
From aorta to inferior vena cava, describe the route blood goes through in the kidneys (ARSIAC AGE PCAIRI)
Aorta > renal artery > segmental artery > interlobar > arcuate > cotical radiate > afferent glomerular > glomerulus (capillaries) > efferent gloumerular arteriole > peritubular caps and vasa recta > cortical radiate vein > arcuate vein > interlobar > renal vein > inf vena cava
The nephron of the kidneys produce urine through these three interacting mechanisms...
- 1. filtration
- 2. resorption
- 3. secretion
This proces is when molecules from the blood leaves the kidney capillaries and enters the renal tubule.
During this process during urine production, most of the nutrients, water, and essential ions are recovered from the filtrate and returned to the blood of capillaries in the surrounding connective tissue.
This active process of urine production moves additional underable molecules into the renal tubule from the blood of surrounding capillaries.
What are the 2 things nephrons are composed of?
renal coruscle and tubule
What are the 3 main things the renal tubule is divided into?
- 1.) proximal tubule
- 2.) nephron loop (loop of henle)
- 3.) distal tubule
What is the first part of the nephron where filtration occurs?
- renal corpuscle
T or F: the glomeruular arterioles are fenestrated so large quantities of fluid and small polecules can ass through into the glomerular capsule
What are the three layers of the filtration membrane?
- 1. capillary endothelium
- 2. basement membrane
- 3. foot processes of podocyte
In the filtration membrane, what are the filtration slits between rocesses covered by?
- a thin slit diaphragm
What is the proximal convuluted tubule most active in?
- resorption and secretion
T or F: the cells of the proximal tubules contain little mitochondria
True: they contain many to provide energy for resorption
What cell composes of the descending limb of the nephron loop?
T or F: the distal and proximal convoluted tubule can be find in the renal cortex and renal medulla.
False: they are confined to the renal cortex
What are the cells called in the collecting ducts that are rich with mitochondria and participate in resorption and secretion of ions?
What can the pituitary gland secrete to conserve water in the body?
secretes antidiuretic hormones which increase permeability of collecting ducts and distal tubules to water
This type of nephron represents 85% of all nephrons.
What is the 15% of nephrons that lie near the cortex-medulla juntion?
These long nephron loops contribute to the kidney's ability to roduce a concentrated urine. Which nephron is this about?
long nephron loops of the juxtamedullary nephrons
What two capillary beds are nephrons associate closely with?
the glomerulus (capillaries) and the peritubular capillaries
This part of the nephron is both fed and drained by arterioles - an afferent ___ artioerole and an efferent ___ arteriole.
T or F: the efferent arteriole are thicker than the afferent arteriole, so the blood pressure inside the glomeruli is low.
False: the afferent arterioles inside the glomeruli are thicker than the efferent arterioles, the BP in the glomeruli is high.
How much filtrate from blood does the kidney generate? what % end up n the urine and resorbed by the uriniferous tubule to the blood?
1 liter of filtrate every 8 mins: 1% in the urine and 99% returned to the blood.
This part of the nephron arise from the efferent arterioles and drains the cortical glomeruli.
- peritubular capillaries
Where do the pperitubular capillaries lie in?
the interstitial CT of the renal cortex, a loose areolar CT that surrounds the renal tubes.
These can be found in the juxtamedullary glomeruli in the nephron loops. It is part of the kidney's urine-concentrating mechanisms.
- vasa recta
This is a structure that functions in the regulation of blood pressure and is an area of secialized contact between the terminal end of the thick ascending limb of the nephron loop and the afferent arteriole.
- juxtaglomerular complex
What do the walls of the afferent and efferent glomerular arterioles contain? what hormones do the cells contain and for what response mechanism?
granular cells: secretes RENIN in response to falling BP in the afferent arteriole
These are closelyy packed epithelial cells in the terminal portions of the nephron loop that act as chemoreceptors for monitoring solute concentrations in the filtrate.
- macula densa: when soute concentrations in filtrate fall too low, it signals granular cells to secrete renin
These cells interact with the cells of the macula densa and granular cells to regulate blood pressure.
- extraglomerular mesangial cells
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