BIO 377 Exam 2

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BIO 377 Exam 2
2014-12-15 08:48:14
BIO 377 Exam2 Final
science,medical physiology
Exam 2 questions from BIO 377 at UMaine (Fall 2014).
Show Answers:

  1. __________ is responsible for the repolarization of pacemaker cells.
    An increase in PK
  2. During ventricular ejection, ________.
    • the left ventricular pressure is greater than the aortic pressure
    • the semilunar valves are open
  3. A heart murmur that occurs primarily during diastole and is caused from a backflow of blood is __________.
    aortic valve regurgitation
  4. The end-diastolic volume minus the end-systolic volume is the __________.
    stroke volume
  5. The SA node is innervated by ________.
    the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
  6. What is the Cardiac Output of a hospitalized person in intensive care whose heart rate is 100 beats per minute, systolic pressure is 120 mmHg, diastolic pressure is 80 mmHg, end-systolic volume is 0.07 liters, end-diastolic volume is 0.12 liters, and whose mean atrial pressure is 10 mmHg?
    close to 5L/min
  7. The portion of osmotic pressure exerted by ________ in the blood is known as oncotic pressure.
  8. Blood pressure is usually measured in the _______ artery, which is reflective of ________ pressure.
    brachial; aortic
  9. If a blood vessel constricted to half of its original diameter, to keep the flow rate constant through the vessel, the pressure exerted upon that vessel would need to _________.
    become 16x greater
  10. Any change in relative distribution of cardiac output to an organ is typically due to changes in ________.
    resistance of that organ's vascular bed
  11. Veins function as _______ reservoirs due to their ________ compliance.
    volume; high
  12. In the lymphatic system, BIG molecules or debris tend to move _________.
    from interstitium, into lymphatics, towards plasma
  13. Baroreceptors respond to __________, which is/are altered by mean arterial pressure.
    the changes in stretch of the blood vessel wall
  14. Congestive heart failure on the left side of the heart results in ________.
    increased venous pressure
  15. Which answer best describes a myocardial infarction?

    A) none of these
    B) hypertrophy of the heart
    C) pulmonary edema
    D) decreased net filtration in capillaries
    E) a fibrillation of the heart
    E) a fibrillation of the heart
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. A normal hematocrit value is approximately ________ (%).
  17. What hematopoietic growth factor controls red blood cell synthesis, and what organ releases it?
    erythropoietin; kidney
  18. Platelets are best described as ________.
    cell fragments from megakaryotes
  19. The "string-like" structures directly attached to heart valves to keep them closed are __________.
    chordae tendinae
  20. What would be the direct effects of β-blockers on heart function (given the same amount of adrenaline)?
    It would contract less strongly
  21. Normal blood pH is around _________.
  22. The ________ is bounded by the interior surface of the chest wall and exterior surface of the lung.
    intrapleural space
  23. At rest, an expiration is a(n) _________ process that involves _________.
    passive; relaxation of the diaphragm and external intercostals
  24. What is a typically normal intrapleural pressure RELATIVE to a typical outside pressure?
    -4 mmHg
  25. What benefit are corticosteroids in the treatment of asthma?
    They reduce inflammation of the airways.
  26. _________ refers to the volume of air moved into and out of the lungs in a single breath during unforced breathing.
    Tidal volume
  27. Factors affecting lung compliance are lung ________ and _________.
    elasticity; surface tension
  28. The conversion of CO2 to bicarbonate in the blood occurs primarily within the ________.
  29. A deficiency of oxygen is called _______.
  30. Which statement below best describes the Bohr Effect regarding oxygen binding to hemoglobin?

    A) Increased [H+] increases probability for oxygen and hemoglobin association.
    B) Increased temperature increases probability for oxygen and hemoglobin association.
    C) Decreased [H+] increases probability for oxygen and hemoglobin association.
    D) Increased [CO2] increases probability for oxygen and hemoglobin association.
    E) Decreased [H+] decreases probability for oxygen and hemoglobin association.
    C) Decreased [H+] increases probability for oxygen and hemoglobin association.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. Pulmonary edema describes a condition where he uptake of oxygen and unloading of carbon dioxide is reduced as a consequence of a(n) __________.
    thickening of the diffusion barrier
  32. In order to transport bicarbonate out of the erythrocyte while maintaining electroneutrality, a ________ molecule is transported into the erythrocyte at the same time bicarbonate moves out.
  33. The medullary Respiratory Center primarily concerned with routine inspiration is the _________.
    DRG (Dorsal Respiratory Group)