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- Our reflections on how we arrived at fact, beliefs, and ideas. involves dualistic, relativistic, and commitment within relatvistic thinking
- right/wrong; good/bad; I believe everything the prof said
- belief that there is no absolute truth; that there are multiple truths, each relative to its context.
commitment within relativistic thinking
- formulate a more satisfying perpective that synthesizes contradiction
- acquisition of extensive knowledge in a field; takes many years; affects information processing
- problem finding; 10 year rule; creativity usually rises in early adulthood and peaks in later thirties and early forties.
- a core feature of postformal thought evident in high achievers.
10 year rule
- a part of master level creativity; a decade between initial exposure to a field and sufficient expertise to produce creative work
what is part of the college experience?
- Exposure to new ideas, beliefs, demands leads to cognitive growth, new thinking patterns
what are some psychological changes in college students?
- - Better at reasoning about problems
- - Relativistic thinking
- - Increased self-understanding
what are the three periods of vocational development?
- - fantasy period (childhood)
- - tentative period (adolescence)
- - realistic period
- - exploration: gather more information; compatibility considering own personalities.
- - crystallization: focus on a general catergory first then settle on a single occupation
When do athletic skills peak/decline?
- between 20 and 35; they decline gradually until 60s or 70s when they dramatically decrease.
what slows the loss of athletic ability?
- continued training which helps keep more vital capacity, muscle and response speed
how many adults get enough exercise?
- only about 1/3rd
what is considered enough exercise for an adult?
- - at least 30 mins/day and 5 or more days a weeks
- - more often more vigorous is better
how many of north americans are inactive which specific groups are most inactive?
- about one third; women and low ses
what is eriksons theory?
intimacy versus isolation
- - Making a permanent commitment to an intimate partner
- - Involves giving up some independence and redefining identity.
- - Loneliness, self-absorption
- - Hesitant to form close ties or threatened by closeness
what are vaillant's adaptations to life?
- 20s ? intimacy concerns
- 30s ? career consolidation
- 40s ? ?generative? (Giving to and guiding others)
- 50s?60s ? ?Guardians of the cultures?.
- 70s ? spiritual and reflective
what are levinson's early adult seasons?
- - early adult transition (17-22)
- - age 30 transition
early adult trasition
- occurs from 17-22; contructs a "dream"- image of self in the adult world. genders differ
how do the genders dream in the early adult transition differ?
- - men usually emphasize an independant achiever in an occupational role
- - women have split dreams in which both marriage and career.
Age 30 trasition
- young people re-evaluate their life structure and often focus on underdevelped aspects of their life.
- age graded expectations for major life events, such as beginning a first job, getting married, borth of the first child, buying a home, or retiring.
what does following a social clock provide what happen when one does not follow the clock?
- - Following a social clock lends confidence, contributes to social stability
- - Distress if not following or falling behind
Who came up with the truangular theory of love?
- robert sternberg
What are the three components of the triangular theory of love
- intimacy, passion, and commitment
- develops early; intense sexual attraction
what gradually fades and what typically grows
- Passion gradually fades while intimacy and commitment grow
- dominates later; warm, trusting affection and caregiving
What is the relationship of mothers mental ability to family size?
- As maternal IQ declines, family size increases; in larger families, all children, regardless of birth order tend to have lower IQs. children's IQ's do not decline with birth order. In larger families, last-born children tend to have higher IQs.
Birth rate is highest amoung whom?
- young adults with lower IQs
"old hearing" age related occurs earliest and results in most loss of hearing in high frequencies.
Gender differneces in hearing loss with aging
- men lose hearing earlier and more rapidly this is associated with men having louder occupations, cigarette smoking, and health factors
where do men and women gain fat in middle adulthood?
- - men; upper abdomen and back
- - women: waist and upper arms
Muscle fat makeup in middle adulthood
- - Very gradual muscle declines
- - fat gain in torso
How can fat gain and muscle decline in middle adulthood be avoided?
- - Low-fat diet with fruits, vegetables, grains
- - Exercise - resistance training
- Severe bone loss, fragile bones
what causes osteoporosis?
- -Normal aging With age, bones more porous, lose bone mass; Menopause estrogen drop speeds loss
men vs women regarding osteoporosis
- Women develop earlier; men often overlooked
what is the double standard of aging?
- - Negative Stereotypes of aging are more likely to be applied to women than to men.
- - Aging men rated more positively; women more negatively
Problem centered coping
- - Identify and appraise problems
- - Choose and implement potential solutions
- Control distress when situation can?t be changed
- depends more heavily on basic information skills- the ability to detect relationships among visual stimuli, speed of analyzing information and the capacity of working memory.
- refers to skills that depend on accumulated knowledge and experience, good judgement, and mastery of social conventions; increases with age and heavily influence by culture because the abilities acquired are done so because they are valued by an individual's culture.
- Reaching out to others in ways that give to and guide the next generation
what is a major means for realizing gererativity?
- - Self-indulgent with little concerns with others (e.g., young generation)
- - More concerns with what they can get rather than what they can give
- - Little interest in work productivity, self-improvement
- 40-45 when the individual evaluates early adulthood and makes drastic or small changes. They regard their future time as precious.
what are the four developmental tasks for middle-aged adults?
- helps middle aged adults to reasses their relation to themselves and the external world young-old, destruction-creation, masculinity-femininity, and engagement-separateness,
- find new ways of being both young and old
- Acknowledge past destructiveness, try to create products of value
- Balance masculine and feminine parts of the self
- Balance involvement with external world and separateness from it
- What one hopes or fears becoming in the future; becomes fewer in middle adulthood and more modest and concrete with age.
gender identity in middle adulthod
- women increase in masculine traits while men increase in feminine traits. both become more angrogynous
- Actual competence and performance; May not match chronological age
- the number of years that an individual born in a particular year can expect to live. increasing in north america in 2004 it was 77.9 for the U.s.
group differences in life expectancy
- Women live about 4-7 years longer; SES- as education and income increase so does life expectancy; nationality- white children are expected to live the longest then black then native american; ethnicity.
explain the life expectancy crossover
- below age 85 life expectancy is greater for american whites than blacks; however, at age 85 and older this trend reverses.
Activities of daily living (ADLs)
- basic self-care tasks such as bathing, dressing and eating.
Instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs)
-Conducting business of everyday life; Requires cognitive competence; Shopping, food prep, housekeeping
loss of brain weight
- accerleates after 6-
Neuron loss with age
- neurons are lost in frontal lobes, corpus callosum, cerebellim (balance), and glial cells
How does the brain compensate for losses in the nervous system with aging?
- it forms new fibers, neurons, and connections and uses more parts of the brain.
Explain aging and visual and hearing performance
- women report more visual impairment while men report more hearing impairment. In late life, hearing impariments become more common than vision impariments.
- - Genetically influenced declines
- - Affects all members of species
- - Even happens if health is good
- - Declines due to particular heredity and environment factors
- - Effects individualized
- - Play a larger role in frailty
- - Recall (difficult for elders)
- - Particular difficulty remembering sources of information
- - slower processing due to smaller working memory
- recognition memory and implicit memory
- a fairly automatic type of memory that requires little mental effort; better than revall with more enviromental support
- - Memory without conscious awareness
- - Memory depending on familiarity rather than conscious use of strategies is largely unaffected in old age
what type of memory declines in late adulthood?
- - Associative memory; older adults have Difficulty in creating/retrieving links between pieces of information
- - associated with an age-related deficit in binding information into complex memory
Young and old adults' performance on single word and word pair memory tests, supporting as associative memory deficit in late adulthood
- Old adults performed almost as well as young adults on single word memory tests; however, they did far worse on the word-pair memory test supporting an associate memory deficit in late adulthood.
- - Very long-term recall (autobiographical memory)
- - Worsens with age
- - Remembering to engage in planned actions
- - Event-based easier than time-based
Language processing in late adulthood
- generally comprehension changes very little however their are age realted losses
what are the 2 specific aspects of age-related losses in language processing in late adulthood?
- - Problems retrieving specific words ie Tip-of-the-tongue
- - Problems planning what to say
what is the cause of losses in language processing in late adulthood?
- limit in working memory
- - Feel whole, complete, satisfied with achievements
- - Expressed as serenity and contentment
- - Feel many life decisions were wrong, but it is too late to change them
- - Bitter and unaccepting of coming death
- - Expressed as anger and contempt for others
- a significant late life attainment where elders become expert at processing emotional information and regulating negative effects' it affects optimization and maximizes positive emotions while dampening negative ones; improves with age.
- attend immediatly to dependant behaviors
- ignore independant behavior
results of dependancy-support and independance-ignore script
- - Both reinforce dependency
- - Make social contact less pleasant
Underlying reason for ependancy-support and independance-ignore script
- The stereotype of passive and incompetent elders
- Mutual withdrawal of elders and society
-Social barriers cause declining interaction
-Strive to maintain consistency between past and future