EDF final study guide.txt

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EDF final study guide.txt
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EDF Final
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  1. Epistemic cognition
    - Our reflections on how we arrived at fact, beliefs, and ideas. involves dualistic, relativistic, and commitment within relatvistic thinking
  2. Dualistic thinking
    - right/wrong; good/bad; I believe everything the prof said
  3. relativistic thinking
    - belief that there is no absolute truth; that there are multiple truths, each relative to its context.
  4. commitment within relativistic thinking
    - formulate a more satisfying perpective that synthesizes contradiction
  5. Expertise
    - acquisition of extensive knowledge in a field; takes many years; affects information processing
  6. creativity
    - problem finding; 10 year rule; creativity usually rises in early adulthood and peaks in later thirties and early forties.
  7. problem finding
    - a core feature of postformal thought evident in high achievers.
  8. 10 year rule
    - a part of master level creativity; a decade between initial exposure to a field and sufficient expertise to produce creative work
  9. what is part of the college experience?
    - Exposure to new ideas, beliefs, demands leads to cognitive growth, new thinking patterns
  10. what are some psychological changes in college students?
    • - Better at reasoning about problems
    • - Relativistic thinking
    • - Increased self-understanding
  11. what are the three periods of vocational development?
    • - fantasy period (childhood)
    • - tentative period (adolescence)
    • - realistic period
  12. realistic period
    • - exploration: gather more information; compatibility considering own personalities.
    • - crystallization: focus on a general catergory first then settle on a single occupation
  13. When do athletic skills peak/decline?
    - between 20 and 35; they decline gradually until 60s or 70s when they dramatically decrease.
  14. what slows the loss of athletic ability?
    - continued training which helps keep more vital capacity, muscle and response speed
  15. how many adults get enough exercise?
    - only about 1/3rd
  16. what is considered enough exercise for an adult?
    • - at least 30 mins/day and 5 or more days a weeks
    • - more often more vigorous is better
  17. how many of north americans are inactive which specific groups are most inactive?
    - about one third; women and low ses
  18. what is eriksons theory?
    intimacy versus isolation
  19. Intimacy
    • - Making a permanent commitment to an intimate partner
    • - Involves giving up some independence and redefining identity.
  20. Isolation
    • - Loneliness, self-absorption
    • - Hesitant to form close ties or threatened by closeness
  21. what are vaillant's adaptations to life?
    • 20s ? intimacy concerns
    • 30s ? career consolidation
    • 40s ? ?generative? (Giving to and guiding others)
    • 50s?60s ? ?Guardians of the cultures?.
    • 70s ? spiritual and reflective
  22. what are levinson's early adult seasons?
    • - early adult transition (17-22)
    • - age 30 transition
  23. early adult trasition
    - occurs from 17-22; contructs a "dream"- image of self in the adult world. genders differ
  24. how do the genders dream in the early adult transition differ?
    • - men usually emphasize an independant achiever in an occupational role
    • - women have split dreams in which both marriage and career.
  25. Age 30 trasition
    - young people re-evaluate their life structure and often focus on underdevelped aspects of their life.
  26. Social clock
    - age graded expectations for major life events, such as beginning a first job, getting married, borth of the first child, buying a home, or retiring.
  27. what does following a social clock provide what happen when one does not follow the clock?
    • - Following a social clock lends confidence, contributes to social stability
    • - Distress if not following or falling behind
  28. Who came up with the truangular theory of love?
    - robert sternberg
  29. What are the three components of the triangular theory of love
    - intimacy, passion, and commitment
  30. passionate love
    - develops early; intense sexual attraction
  31. what gradually fades and what typically grows
    - Passion gradually fades while intimacy and commitment grow
  32. companionate love
    - dominates later; warm, trusting affection and caregiving
  33. What is the relationship of mothers mental ability to family size?
    - As maternal IQ declines, family size increases; in larger families, all children, regardless of birth order tend to have lower IQs. children's IQ's do not decline with birth order. In larger families, last-born children tend to have higher IQs.
  34. Birth rate is highest amoung whom?
    - young adults with lower IQs
  35. presbycusis
    "old hearing" age related occurs earliest and results in most loss of hearing in high frequencies.
  36. Gender differneces in hearing loss with aging
    - men lose hearing earlier and more rapidly this is associated with men having louder occupations, cigarette smoking, and health factors
  37. where do men and women gain fat in middle adulthood?
    • - men; upper abdomen and back
    • - women: waist and upper arms
  38. Muscle fat makeup in middle adulthood
    • - Very gradual muscle declines
    • - fat gain in torso
  39. How can fat gain and muscle decline in middle adulthood be avoided?
    • - Low-fat diet with fruits, vegetables, grains
    • - Exercise - resistance training
  40. osteoporosis
    - Severe bone loss, fragile bones
  41. what causes osteoporosis?
    • -Normal aging With age, bones more porous, lose bone mass; Menopause estrogen drop speeds loss
    • -Heredity,
    • -Lifestyle
  42. men vs women regarding osteoporosis
    - Women develop earlier; men often overlooked
  43. what is the double standard of aging?
    • - Negative Stereotypes of aging are more likely to be applied to women than to men.
    • - Aging men rated more positively; women more negatively
  44. Problem centered coping
    • - Identify and appraise problems
    • - Choose and implement potential solutions
  45. Emotion-centered coping
    - Control distress when situation can?t be changed
  46. Fluid intelligence
    - depends more heavily on basic information skills- the ability to detect relationships among visual stimuli, speed of analyzing information and the capacity of working memory.
  47. crystallized intelligence
    - refers to skills that depend on accumulated knowledge and experience, good judgement, and mastery of social conventions; increases with age and heavily influence by culture because the abilities acquired are done so because they are valued by an individual's culture.
  48. Generativity
    - Reaching out to others in ways that give to and guide the next generation
  49. what is a major means for realizing gererativity?
    - parenting
  50. stagnation
    • - Self-indulgent with little concerns with others (e.g., young generation)
    • - More concerns with what they can get rather than what they can give
    • - Little interest in work productivity, self-improvement
  51. midlife transition
    - 40-45 when the individual evaluates early adulthood and makes drastic or small changes. They regard their future time as precious.
  52. what are the four developmental tasks for middle-aged adults?
    - helps middle aged adults to reasses their relation to themselves and the external world young-old, destruction-creation, masculinity-femininity, and engagement-separateness,
  53. young-old
    - find new ways of being both young and old
  54. destruction- creation
    - Acknowledge past destructiveness, try to create products of value
  55. Masculinity-Femininity
    - Balance masculine and feminine parts of the self
  56. Engagement-Separateness
    - Balance involvement with external world and separateness from it
  57. possible selves
    - What one hopes or fears becoming in the future; becomes fewer in middle adulthood and more modest and concrete with age.
  58. gender identity in middle adulthod
    - women increase in masculine traits while men increase in feminine traits. both become more angrogynous
  59. functional age
    - Actual competence and performance; May not match chronological age
  60. Life expectancy
    - the number of years that an individual born in a particular year can expect to live. increasing in north america in 2004 it was 77.9 for the U.s.
  61. group differences in life expectancy
    - Women live about 4-7 years longer; SES- as education and income increase so does life expectancy; nationality- white children are expected to live the longest then black then native american; ethnicity.
  62. explain the life expectancy crossover
    - below age 85 life expectancy is greater for american whites than blacks; however, at age 85 and older this trend reverses.
  63. Activities of daily living (ADLs)
    - basic self-care tasks such as bathing, dressing and eating.
  64. Instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs)
    -Conducting business of everyday life; Requires cognitive competence; Shopping, food prep, housekeeping
  65. loss of brain weight
    - accerleates after 6-
  66. Neuron loss with age
    - neurons are lost in frontal lobes, corpus callosum, cerebellim (balance), and glial cells
  67. How does the brain compensate for losses in the nervous system with aging?
    - it forms new fibers, neurons, and connections and uses more parts of the brain.
  68. Explain aging and visual and hearing performance
    - women report more visual impairment while men report more hearing impairment. In late life, hearing impariments become more common than vision impariments.
  69. primary aging
    • - Genetically influenced declines
    • - Affects all members of species
    • - Even happens if health is good
  70. Secondary aging
    • - Declines due to particular heredity and environment factors
    • - Effects individualized
    • - Play a larger role in frailty
  71. Deliberate memory
    • - Recall (difficult for elders)
    • - Particular difficulty remembering sources of information
    • - slower processing due to smaller working memory
  72. automatic memory
    - recognition memory and implicit memory
  73. recognition memory
    - a fairly automatic type of memory that requires little mental effort; better than revall with more enviromental support
  74. Implicit memory
    • - Memory without conscious awareness
    • - Memory depending on familiarity rather than conscious use of strategies is largely unaffected in old age
  75. what type of memory declines in late adulthood?
    • - Associative memory; older adults have Difficulty in creating/retrieving links between pieces of information
    • - associated with an age-related deficit in binding information into complex memory
  76. Young and old adults' performance on single word and word pair memory tests, supporting as associative memory deficit in late adulthood
    - Old adults performed almost as well as young adults on single word memory tests; however, they did far worse on the word-pair memory test supporting an associate memory deficit in late adulthood.
  77. remote memory
    • - Very long-term recall (autobiographical memory)
    • - Worsens with age
  78. Prospective memory
    • - Remembering to engage in planned actions
    • - Event-based easier than time-based
  79. Language processing in late adulthood
    - generally comprehension changes very little however their are age realted losses
  80. what are the 2 specific aspects of age-related losses in language processing in late adulthood?
    • - Problems retrieving specific words ie Tip-of-the-tongue
    • - Problems planning what to say
  81. what is the cause of losses in language processing in late adulthood?
    - limit in working memory
  82. Ego integrity
    • - Feel whole, complete, satisfied with achievements
    • - Expressed as serenity and contentment
  83. despair
    • - Feel many life decisions were wrong, but it is too late to change them
    • - Bitter and unaccepting of coming death
    • - Expressed as anger and contempt for others
  84. emotional expertise
    - a significant late life attainment where elders become expert at processing emotional information and regulating negative effects' it affects optimization and maximizes positive emotions while dampening negative ones; improves with age.
  85. dependency-support script
    - attend immediatly to dependant behaviors
  86. Independence-ignore script
    - ignore independant behavior
  87. results of dependancy-support and independance-ignore script
    • - Both reinforce dependency
    • - Make social contact less pleasant
  88. Underlying reason for ependancy-support and independance-ignore script
    - The stereotype of passive and incompetent elders
  89. Disengagement Theory
    - Mutual withdrawal of elders and society
  90. Activity Theory
    -Social barriers cause declining interaction
  91. Continuity Theory
    -Strive to maintain consistency between past and future

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