Quiz 2 (Ch 3 & 4) A&P
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The selectively permeable boundary of the cell
The control center of the cell; has double-layer membrane.
a watery solution of minerals, gases and organic molecules; contains the cell organelles; site for many chemical reactions
Lipids synthesized by _____ ER
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Proteins synthesized by the ribosomes on the _____ ER.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Are very small structures made of protein and ribosomal RNA. Some are found on the surface of rough ER, while others float freely within the cytoplasm.
A series of flat, membranous sacs, somewhat like a stack of saucers. Carbohydrates are synthesized within the _____, and are packaged, along with other materials for secretion from the cell.
are oval or spherical organelles bounded by a double membrane. Aerobic (O2-required) reactions of cell respiration takes place. Site of ATP production.
Are single-membrane structures that contain digestive enzymes. Digest and destroys bacteria, worn out cells, dead cells. important process before tissue repair can begin
a pair of rod-shaped structures perpendicular to one another, located outside the nucleus. their function is to organize the spindle fibers during cell division.
mobile thread-like projections through the cell membrane; each is anchored by a basal body just within the membrane. It beats in unison and sweep materials across the cell surface.
The sperm cell is the only human cell with a _____. It provides motility/movement for the sperm cell.
are folds of the cell membrane on the free surface of a cell. Folds greatly increase the surface area of the membrane, and are part of the cells lining organs that absorb materials.
the movement of molecules from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration; occurs because molecules have free energy. O2 and CO2 are exchanged in the lungs and tissues through this.
the diffusion of water. Water diffuses to an area of less water, that is, to an area of more dissolved material. The small intestine absorbs water from digested food by this.
transporters (carrier enzymes) that are part of the cell membrane permit cells to take in materials that would not diffuse by themselves. Most cells take in glucose.
a cell uses ATP to move substance from an area of lesser concentration to an area of greater concentration. Sodium pump returns Na+ ions to the exterior of the cells. Cells of small intestine absorb glucose and amino acids from digested food by this.
pressure forces water and dissolved materials through a membrane from an area of higher pressure to an area of lower pressure. BP forces plasma and dissolved nutrients out of capillaries and into tissues. BP in the kidney capillaries create filtrations which is the first step in the formation of urine.
A form of endocytosis/ a "moving" cell engulfs something; white blood cells phagocytize bacteria to destroy them.
A form of endocytosis/ a "stationary" cell engulfs small molecules; kidney tubule cells reabsorb small proteins by this.
a solution with same salt concentration as in cells.
A solution with a lower salt concentration than in cells. Distilled water (0% salt) is _____ to human cells
a solution with a higher salt concentration than in cells. Seawater (3% salt) is _____ to human cells.
46 _____ may also be called our genome, which is the term for the total genetic information in a particular species.
DNA is a double strand of nucleotides. Very much like a spiral ladder.
The code of a single amino acid consists of three bases in the DNA molecule.
The Triplet Code: This Triplet of bases may be called this for amino acids.
each tRNA molecule has a triplet complementary to a triplet on the mRNA.
the intermediary molecule between these two sites. Moves from the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm.
This molecule in the cytoplasm have anticodons for the triplets on the mRNA. This molecule picks up specific amino acids from our food and bring them to their proper triplets on the mRNA.
Comes from protein in our food.
the ribosomes contain enzymes to catalyze the formation between the amino acids. When an amino acid has been brought to each triplet on the mRNA and all _____ bonds have been formed, the protein is finished.
one cell with the diploid number of chromosomes divides once to form two cells, each with diploid number of chromosomes (46 for humans)
DNA replication forms two sets of chromosomes during this phase. Resting phase.
Chromosomes coil up. Visible short rods. Each chromosome is really 2 chromatids still attached at a region called the centromere. Nuclear membrane disappears. Centrioles move toward opposite poles of the cell and organize the spindle fibers
pairs of chromatids line up along the equator of the cell. centromere of each pair is attached to a spindle fiber. Centromeres now divide.
Each chromatid is now considered a separate chromosome. 2 complete and separate set. The spindle fibers contract and pull the chromosomes.
The set of chromosomes reach the poles of the cell and become indistinct as their DNA uncoils to form chromatin. Nuclear membrane re-forms around each set of chromosomes.
A more complex process of cell division that results in the formation of gametes, which are egg and sperm cells.
Egg and sperm cells.
In meiosis one cell with the diploid number of chromosomes divides twice to form four cells. half the usual number of chromosomes.
In women meiosis takes place in the ovaries.
in men meiosis takes place in the testes
flat, smooth, and very thin epithelial tissue.
Structure of Simple Squamous
The aveoli (air sacs) of the lungs are where this epithelial tissue is located. Also located in the Capillaries, the smallest blood vessels.
location of Simple Squamous
This epithelial tissue allows diffusion of gases between air and blood with the alveoli (lungs)
Function of Simple Squamous
consist of many layers of mostly flat cells, although lower cells are rounded.
structure of Stratified Squamous
This epithelium is makes up the epidermis of the skin where it is called "keratinizing" because the protein keratin is produced. Surface cells are dead.
location of Stratified Squamous
The function of this epithelium tissue is to create a barrier to pathogens.
Function of Stratified Squamous
The structure of this tissue allows for surface cells to change from round to squamous.
Structure of Transitional Epithelium
The location of this transitional epithelium is in the lining of the urinary bladder.
Location of Transitional Epithelium
The function of this epithelium tissue allows the bladder to stretch.
Function of Transitional Epithelium
The structure of this epithelium is a single layer of cube shaped cells.
Structure of Simple Cuboidal
This epithelium tissue makes up the functional units of the thyroid gland, salivary glands, and kidney tubules.
location of simple cuboidal
the functions of this epithelial tissues is secretion. Secretes hormone thyroxine and saliva. Kidney tubules reabsorption of materials back into blood (microvilli)
Functions of simple cuboidal
The structure of this epithelium tissue are taller than they are wide and are specialized in secretion and absorption.
Structure of simple columnar
The location of this epithelial tissue is in the lines of the stomach, small intestine.
Location of Simple Columnar
The function of this epithelial tissue is to secrete enzymes and absorb end products of digestion in small intestine.
Function of simple columnar
The structure of this epithelium tissue has columnar cells with cilia
Structure of Ciliated
location of this epithelial tissue make up the lining nasal cavities, larynx, trachea, and large bronchial tubes.
Location of ciliated
The function of this epithelial tissue is to sweet mucus with trapped dust and bacteria from the inhaled air toward the pharynx to be swallowed. it also sweeps ovum to the uterus.
Function of Ciliated
Structure: Plasma (matrix) and RBC, WBC, platelets
Location:Within blood vessels
Function: Plasma - transports materials. RBCs - Carry oxygen. WBCs - destroys pathogens. Platelets - prevent blood loss.
Structure: Fibroblasts and a matrix of tissue fluids, collagen, and elastin fibers
Location: Subcutaneous, Mucous membranes (digestive, respiratory, urinary, reproductive)
Function: connects skin to muscle. WBC destroy pathogens.
Areolar (loose) connective tissue
Structure: Adipocytes that store fat (little matrix)
Location: Subcutaneous. Around the eyes and kidneys. Brown fat in infants.
Function: Stores excess energy. Produces chemicals that influence appetite, use of nutrients, and inflammation. Cushions. Generates heat.
Structure: Mostly collagen fibers w/few fibroblasts.
Location: tendons, ligaments, dermis
Function: strong to withstand forces of movements of joints. the strong inner layer of the skin.
Structure: mostly elastin fibers w/few fibroblasts
Location: Walls of arteries. Around the alveoli in lungs.
Function: helps maintain blood pressure. promotes normal exhalation.
Structure: Osteocytes in a matrix of calcium salts and collagen.
Function: Support the body. protects internal organs from mechanical injury. stores excess calcium. contain and protect red bone marrow.
structure: Chondrocytes in a flexible protein matrix.
location: wall of trachea. tip of nose and outer ear. between vertebrae
function: keeps airway open. smooth to prevent friction. supports. absorb shock.
Structure: large cylindrical cells with striations and several nuclei each.
Location: attached to bones
Function: moves to skeleton and produces heat.
Skeletal (striated)/Voluntary muscle
Structure: small tapered cells with no striations and one nucleus each.
Location: walls of arteries. walls of stomach and intestines. iris of eye.
Function: maintains BP. peristalsis. regulates size of pupil.
Smooth muscle tissue
Structure: branched cells with faint striations and one nucleus each.
Location: walls of the chambers of the heart
Function: pump blood.
Cardiac muscle tissue
Specialize in generating and transmitting impulses.
Neurons (Nerve Cells)
Function: regulates the functioning of the neuron
Structure: contains the nucleus
Structure: Cellular process
Function: carries impulses "away" from the cell body
Structure: Cellular process
Function: carry impulses "toward" the cell body
Structure: space between axon of one neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the next neuron.
Function: Transmits impulses from one neuron to others.
Structure: Specialized cells in the CNS
Function: Form myelin sheaths and other functions
Structure:Specialized cells in the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
Function:Form the myelin sheaths around neurons.
Central Nervous System (CNS) VS Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
- CNS includes brain and spinal cord.
- PNS is everything not brain and spinal cord.
in closed body cavities; this fluid prevents friction between the two layers of the _____ membrane. EX: Thoracic Cavity, Pericardial Sac, Abdominal cavity
line body tracts that open to the environment. EX: respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive. This membrane keeps the living epithelium wet; provides lubrication in the digestive tract; traps dust and bacteria in the respiratory tract.
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