Oceanography Final 1-4 Baker OCC

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Oceanography Final 1-4 Baker OCC
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2014-12-08 20:56:44
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Oceanography Final Baker OCC
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Oceanography Final 1-4 Baker OCC
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  1. The average height of the continents above sea level is greater than the average depth of the ocean?

  2. Most of water on earth is contained…

  3. What orderly process do scientists use to verify or reject theories?

  4. Where are we anyway, lat and long?

  5. What element makes up the most abundant form of matter in the universe?

  6. A supernova is?

  7. If you were a scientist that studied how waves break on the shoreline you, which of the following would best describe your discipline?

  8. If you were a scientist that studied seismic activity at plate boundaries, which of the following would best describe your discipline?

  9. Chemical oceanographers are?

  10. Earth’s ocean first formed when?

  11. Interlinking lines of evidence tell us that the age of Earth is approximately how old?

  12. How long ago might life on Earth have originated?

  13. If you were looking around our solar system for another planetary body that could have life, the most important thing you would look for is liquid water. T or F

  14. Our sun is like a nuclear furnace, in the center are compressed gases much like a hydrogen bomb. Our sun is hot enough to fuse hydrogen atoms together but not hot enough to fuse atoms to make

  15. The scientific theory for the origin of the universe is known as the Accretion Theory. T or F

  16. The world ocean covers about 97% of the Earth's surface. T or F

  17. How long might our descendants enjoy life on earth as we know it today before our Sun dies?

  18. The most accepted explanation of the moon's origin is __________________?

  19. Earth’s heavy elements came from what occurrence?

  20. An explanation that is supported by many observations, has no major inconsistencies, and is accepted by most scientists is _____________________.

  21. Life on earth is formed of aggregations of a few basic kinds of compounds made up primarily of what?

  22. The earliest regular voyaging for trade purposes took place in the ______________.

  23. The earliest navigation was carried out by using __________________.

  24. Who is responsible for the first measurement of the circumference of the Earth?

  25. Prince Henry the Navigator's contribution to ocean exploration included:

  26. Christopher Columbus believed that he voyaged across the Atlantic and discovered a passage to the east by going west. He believed that he made it to Asia due to the earth’s circumference as calculated by:

  27. Lines of latitude and longitude were drawn through important places by Eratosthenes, but, who was responsible for creating our present grid, dividing the earth into 360 degrees?

  28. What did Ptolemy do?

  29. In AD 986, Bjarni Herjulfsson was blown past his goal and sighted new land. What Viking bought his boat and help to establish a colony in the North America?

  30. What purpose did the Chinese voyages of Zheng He in the 1420’s have?

  31. There were new technologies invented and used in the Chinese voyages of Zheng He. What were they?

  32. Which of the following best describes the organized study of the ocean beginning with the technical studies of voyagers?

  33. Who is considered to be the "father of physical oceanography" because of publication of information from ship's logs in the book "The Physical Geography of the Seas"?

  34. Glomar Challenger is known mainly for what?

  35. The key to determining longitude at sea was by inventing a sturdy clock that ran at a constant rate under any circumstance. The first of these clocks was governed by a spring escapement and not by pendulum. What was it called and who invented it?

  36. Why was the expedition led by Magellan in the early 1500s was significant to oceanography?

  37. Which early navigator could be considered the “First Marine Scientist” because of his careful observation and record keeping and changed the world – peacefully – more than anyone in history?

  38. Which brilliant British scientist could be considered the first marine biologist and incorrectly theorized that there was no life below the sunlit zone “azoic depths”, due to lack of light and extreme pressure?

  39. Where was the word “Oceanography” was invented?

  40. The four year US Exploring Expedition that circumnavigated the globe, led by Charles Wilkes

  41. Which man was the first to publish a reasonably accurate chart of an ocean current, the Gulf Stream?

  42. Oceanian navigators may have been using shells attached to a bamboo grid to represent the positions of their islands which might have resembled what?

  43. What was the first sailing expedition devoted entirely to marine science?

  44. Who invented the magnetic compass?

  45. What technique was first used on a large scale by the German vessel Meteor in the 1920’s to sense the contours of the seafloor?

  46. What are graphic representations that show primarily water and water-related information ?

  47. The expedition of Fridtjof Nansen in the schooner Fram involved allowing the Fram to become trapped in the Arctic ice. What was the significance of Nansen’s expedition?

  48. The Trieste expedition of the 1960’s had what goal?

  49. Who was the first librarian of the Library of Alexandria in Egypt?

  50. Longitude lines are drawn perpendicular to what?

  51. When the term Oceanography was created, it literally implied what?

  52. What are the advantage(s) of using HROV’s?

  53. Who was the first person to sense the worldwide pattern of surface wind and currents?

  54. Based on composition, what are the layers of the Earth, from interior to exterior named?

  55. What is the most important physical property of the asthenosphere?

  56. Describe Alfred Wegener's hypothesis of continental drift?

  57. The Pacific Ring of Fire refers what?

  58. On a map of geological activity, how can you draw the outline of plates of lithosphere ?

  59. The mid-Atlantic ridge represents an occurrence where a continental plate diverges from another continental plate. What feature is most apparent at this divergence zone?

  60. How did the Hawaiian island chain formed ?

  61. What is composition of the Earth’s core ?

  62. Where are the youngest seafloor rocks in the ocean crust ?

  63. What is the result when two continental plates collide ?

  64. The San Andreas Fault that runs through California is a famous transform fault marking the junction between the Pacific and North American plates. T or F

  65. How do scientists know that the outer core of the Earth is made of liquid ?

  66. Who first presented the theory of continental drift ?

  67. What is the innermost layer of the Earth, which is composed of iron and nickel metal?

  68. Geological activity, such as volcanic and earthquake activity, takes place at what boundaries?

  69. The most violent volcanic eruptions are found at what boundaries?

  70. At convergent plate boundaries what happens to the crust ?

  71. The theory of plate tectonics is a result of the marriage of what two ideas?

  72. The 1964 earthquake in Alaska confirmed what?

  73. Based on the assumption that the Earth cooled from a molten mass, Lord Kelvin estimated earth's age to be how old?

  74. What are the two types of seismic waves?

  75. What are P-waves?

  76. How is Earth's interior is layered ?

  77. Which of the earth's interior layers has the greatest volume at 83%, and an average density of 4.5 g/cm3?

  78. Which of earth's interior layers is composed primarily of granite?

  79. Which of Earth's interior layers is composed primarily of basalt?

  80. Which is more dense Basalt or granite?

  81. Why is the inside of the earth so hot?

  82. Which part of the Earth’s interior is thought to be a liquid?

  83. Convergent, Divergent, and Transform are all terms that describe what?

  84. What kind of plate movement is related to earthquakes and tsunami?

  85. Below is an illustration from the text. What does the illustration show?

  86. What are one of the surface expressions of plumes of magma rising from relatively stationary sources of heat in the mantle? Some famous examples of this can be found in Iceland, and the Hawaiian Islands.

  87. Which of the following is oldest continental crust or oceanic crust?

  88. What makes up the earth’s continental crust a has a light density of 2.7 g/cm3 compared to basalt.

  89. How does the composition of Earth first atmospheric compare to today?.

  90. Where was the first University where systematic study of the ocean began ?

  91. The first oceanic scientific experiments were undertaken by what entity?

  92. What impact did deciphering the worldwide pattern of surface winds and currents ?

  93. The fifty volume Challenger Report was written based upon the scientific findings of what individuals?

  94. In the United States, what are the pre-eminent oceanographic institutions?

  95. The deepest hole drilled in the earth was bored by researchers in the Kola Peninsula in Russia. Why did they stopped drilling at 7.5 miles ?

  96. If earth was perfectly homogenous, how would seismic waves behave?

  97. A circle of violent geological activity surrounding much of the Pacific Ocean has been called what?

  98. Why does the mid-ocean ridge have a zigzag appearance ?

  99. A volcanic island arc forms near what feature?

  100. How does sediment thickness provide evidence for or against seafloor spreading?

  101. What is the famous large transform boundary that occurs where we live?

  102. What famous mountains were as a result of the India-Australian and Eurasian plates 45 million years ago?

  103. The mid-Atlantic represents.

  104. Where did life on Earth almost certainly originate?

  105. About how fast do plates move?

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