Oceanography Final 5-9 Baker OCC

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Oceanography Final 5-9 Baker OCC
2014-12-08 20:32:01
Oceanography Final Baker OCC
Oceanography Final 5-9 Baker OCC
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  1. What is the correct order of sediment size from smallest to largest?

  2. The volume of terrigenous sediments exceeds that of sediments, but, this material covers a greater area of seabed?.

  3. Which of the sediments comprises the smallest percent of all ocean floor area covered?

  4. In terms of transit time to the seafloor, which of the following sediments is the fastest?

  5. Sediments originate from what source(s)?

  6. Which of the following is a classification of sediments based on source?

  7. Manganese nodules and phosphorite deposits are classified as what type of sediment?

  8. Although estimates vary, about 15 billion metric tons of what type of sediments are transported in rivers to the sea each year, with an additional 100 million metric tons transported annually from land to ocean as fine airborne dust and volcanic ash?

  9. What is the second most abundant marine sediment?

  10. Sediments with a biological origin are often made up of what substances?

  11. What are Hydrogenous sediments are also known as authigenic sediments ?

  12. Sediments of the continental shelf what?

  13. What are sediment of the deep ocean floors including the slope and the rise called?

  14. What are underwater avalanches, called turbidity currents, result in graded layers of terrigenous deposits on the ocean floor called?

  15. What are Calcareous oozes formed mainly from?

  16. The rate at which calcareous sediments are supplied to the seabed equals the rate at which those sediments dissolve is called the?

  17. The White Cliffs of Dover are partially lithified deposits composed largely of what organisms shells?

  18. Heat does the ocean store/release heat?

  19. Atoms held together by chemical bonds is called?

  20. _____ gives water an unusually high surface tension?

  21. What would happen if hydrogen bonds did not hold water molecules together?

  22. How does Lliquid water’s heat capacity compare to other substances?

  23. The relationship between the temperature (or salinity) of a substance and its density is represented by what?

  24. When most substances move from a gas phase to a liquid phase, and subsequently a solid phase, they become more dense. How does water compare?

  25. When water freezes, the bond angle between the oxygen and the hydrogen atoms changes from about to ?

  26. How many calories of heat must be added to change a gram of ice to liquid water?

  27. The ocean is stratified by density, and is mainly a function of what?

  28. What is true of the surface zone?

  29. What is true of the pycnocline?

  30. What is the bending of waves such as when light and sound leave a medium of one density and enters a medium of a different density called?

  31. How does sound travel through water compared to light ?

  32. What is the thin film of sunlit water at the top of the surface zone ?

  33. Which wavelength of the visible spectrum of light is most quickly absorbed in the top meter of the ocean?

  34. From above, clear ocean water looks because this wavelength of light can travel through water far enough to scatter back through the surface?

  35. What is the minimum velocity layer?

  36. Water is a powerful....

  37. Which of the following is usually a liquid, and is always the more abundant constituent: solvent or solute?

  38. What does water's dissolving power results from?

  39. Water dissolves sodium chloride (or NaCl), the most common salt, into what constituent ions?

  40. What is the measurement of Seawater's total dissolved inorganic solids?

  41. By weight, seawater is about water, and dissolved substances, most of which are salts of various kinds.

  42. Which of the following is the SECOND most abundant ion in seawater?

  43. How are ions are added to seawater?

  44. How are ions removed from the ocean ?

  45. What is Forschhammers Principle?

  46. What is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere and the ocean?

  47. The ocean is becoming progressively saltier with age because ions are being added via hydrothermal vents, and volcanoes etc., but, they are not being removed by any natural process. T or F

  48. Where on earth do you find vertical descending air?

  49. The photosynthetic activity of marine plants and phytoplankton do what to oxygen and carbon dioxide at surface and at depth?

  50. The pH scale measures waht?

  51. A substance that releases hydrogen ions (H+) in solution is referred to as what?

  52. How does the pH of Seawater compare to pure water?

  53. A solution that tends to resist change in pH is called what?

  54. How does the ocean ability to buffer compare to freshwater lakes.

  55. What happens when the ocean becomes more acidic?

  56. What is the state of the atmosphere at a specific time and place is known as?

  57. What causes the the earth’s seasons?

  58. What governs global circulation of air ?

  59. What does the coriolis effect do to movement of the atmosphere?

  60. What are the tropical circulation cells of each hemisphere is called ?

  61. How many atmospheric circulation cells are there in the northern hemisphere?

  62. At sea, there are areas of high atmospheric pressure and little surface wind where two Hadley cells converge, and occur near the equator are also known as ?

  63. The temperature and water content of air greatly influences it's density. How does humid air compare to dry air at the same temperature ?

  64. Cold air holds what compared to warm air?

  65. Why doesn't the polar ocean freeze solid and the equatorial ocean boil away?

  66. Masses of moving air account for about of the poleward transfer of heat while ocean currents move the other .

  67. A pattern of wind circulation that changes with the season. The areas that experience these patterns are subject to wet summers and dry winters.

  68. Regional atmospheric disturbances characterized by strong winds often accompanied by precipitation are called what?

  69. An extra-tropical cyclone forms air mass(es), and a tropical cyclone forms air mass(es).

  70. Large tropical cyclones are called Hurricanes in what part of the world?

  71. Because density is a function of water's temperature and salinity, the movement of water due to differences in density is called?

  72. Currents that run from east to west are called?

  73. The Coriolis effect does what?

  74. Surface currents are primarily driven by?

  75. What are two types of wind induced vertical currents?

  76. Because of the Coriolis effect, surface currents in the Northern Hemisphere flow 45 to the right of the wind direction. T or F

  77. Continents and basin topography often block continuous flow and help deflect the moving water in a circular pattern. The flow around the periphery of an ocean basin is called what?

  78. In Ekman transport, the direction of the flow of water is degrees to the right of the wind direction (in the northern hemisphere).

  79. What are the five geostrophic gyres?

  80. A boundary current that is narrow, fast, and deep is typically what type of current?

  81. A wide, shallow, slow current is typical of what type of current?

  82. What distribute tropical heat worldwide and influence weather and climate?

  83. The Scilly Isles off the west coast of England have tropical plants as a result of?

  84. Wind induced upward movement of water that brings deep, cold, nutrient rich water toward the surface is called?

  85. Winds that blow steadily across the ocean that induces long sets of counter-rotating vortices (or cells) at the surface water is called?

  86. During major ENSO (El Nino Southern Oscillation) events, sea level in the eastern Pacific

  87. The global pattern of deep circulation resembles a vast "conveyor belt" that carries surface water to the depths and back again. T or F

  88. A series of interconnecting currents as pictured below depicted by the arrows below is called what?

  89. Use the figure above to answer the questions 89 - 96.

    89Identify the gyre labeled A:
    90What type of current is the Brazil Current?
    91What characterists best describe the characteristics of the Brazil Current?
    92What type of current cross lines of longitude?
    93What type of current runs down the California coastline?
    94The Kuroshio, Gulf Stream, Brazil, and East Australian currents move warm water in what direction?
    95Which gyre is NOT a geostrophic gyre?
    96How does the Kuroshio current compare to the California current?

  90. Based on heat capacity, what substances would change temperature quicker than water when exposed to the same amount of heat?

  91. Please use the graph above to answer questions 98 – 100.

    98At what temperature is the density of water the greatest?
    99What happens between point B and C on the above graph?
    100What is the greatest density of water?

  92. What pattern of wind circulation that changes with the season? The areas that experience these patterns are subject to wet summers and dry winters.

  93. Regional atmospheric disturbances characterized by strong winds often accompanied by precipitation are called?

  94. Large tropical cyclones are called Hurricanes in what part of the world?

  95. Currents that run from east to west are called?