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A male primary sex characteristic is
a. Growth of penis b. Development of prostate gland c. Testes d. All of the above
A Female secondary sex characteristics is
One's values beliefs , mission, awareness, subjectivity, experience, sense of purpose and direction is called
Which of the following are defined as secondary
- Hair growth
- Development of reproductive organs
- Skin changes
- All of the above
According to Marcia, which category of identity crisis is a person in if they are currently in a crisis and exploring various
commitments and ready to make choices, but has not made a commitment to these
Which level of Gilligan’s Moral Development involves women putting aside their own needs and wishes and place importance on the well-being of others?
Level 2: Goodness as Self-Sacrifice
In Erikson’s Psychosocial theory, at what ages does an individual generally experience autonomy vs. shame and doubt?
8 months to 3 years old
Which of the following is an not an Identity status according to James Marcia?
According to Erikson's Psychosocial Theory, in which of these stages of development is the Ego strength of Will developed?
Autonomy vs. Shame and doubt
Which stage of Kohlberg's Moral Development falls under the level 2 Conventional Morality?
good boy/girl morality
Which of the following tend to be causes of adolescent suicide?
- Increased Stress
- Family Issues
- Psychological Variables
- all of the above
According to Merton's types of people in terms of prejudice, a condo owner who has no personal issue with African Americans but chooses to rent to Caucasians is:
the unprejudiced discriminator
Erik Eriksons criticisms included:
not enough data
Fowler's theory of development does not focus on which of the following?
According to James Marcia, identity achievement occurs when:
someone undergoes intense decision making to develop a personalized set of values
Stereotypes are defined as:
Preconceived and relatively fixed ideas about an individual, group, or social status.
Which is not a stage in Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory:
Achievement v. Isolation
The task of becoming independent during adolescence involve everything except:
Which of the following would be considered a source of prejudice and discrimination?
- belief in one true religion
- all of the above
According to Erikson's psychosocial theory, young adulthood is associated with which crisis?
intimacy vs. isolation
Molly wants candy from the store. She knows that her mom will get mad if she sees Molly eating candy before dinner and will likely be mad at her for eating an unhealthy snack. Molly decides to not buy any candy because she wants to be a good girl for her mom. Molly is operating at what LEVEL according to Kohlberg's moral development theory?
All of the following are strategies for enhancing self concept for adolescents except
- developing coping skills
- promoting competencies in specific areas
- practicing negative self talk
- encouraging achievement.
What is not one effect of early physical maturation for boys?
they tend to be more resilient as adults
What is the definition of a prejudiced nondiscriminator?
someone who feels hostile toward other groups but does not act on their beliefs
What is an example of de jure discrimination?
Jim Crow laws enacted after the Civil War
According to Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory, what is not likely to happen to a preschool-aged child who is constantly
punished or treated harshly?
- he will learn how to take the initiative to explore his worldhe will experience guilt
- he will become a passive observer
- he will feel the desire to explore and experience new things
What is ethnocentrism?
A set of beliefs that views one’s own culture as superior
What are three birth control measures recommended by the American Academy of pediatrics (AAP)?
Oral contraceptives, IUD’s and Injectable contraception
What is the first stage in Ericson’s Psychological Theory?
Basic trust vs. basic mistrust
What are the three styles of interaction when it comes to assertiveness?
Nonassertive, assertive and aggressive
Which of the following is not a secondary sexual characteristic?
Girls who experience late maturation experience which of the following?
Higher academic performance
Which of James Marcia's levels of identity has the least amount of maturity?
Which stage of Fowler's Theory of Faith Development deals with the person comparing beliefs with teachings?
5: Indiviuative-Reflective Faith
Which one is or are true about the history of violence against minorities in the United States? Page 240
- Minorities have been subjected to extensive violence by whites in our society.
- Lynch mobs included not only men but sometimes also women and children.
Which is or are false about why teens get pregnant? Page 291
Adolescents often use contraception consistently.
Which is or are a criticism(s) of Kohlberg’s theory true? Page 325
- Kohlberg’s theory is culturally biased
- Kohlberg’s theory places primary emphasis on how people think, not what they do
Which is or are true about bulimia nervosa? (362)
- Dehydration and electrolyte imbalance can occur and in some cases cause cardiac arrhythmias and even death.
- The disorder can go undetected by family and friends for years.
- Prejudgment of a group
- Negative treatment of a group
Since the early days of our nation minorities have been singled out, and treated unequally. Which minorities fall under this category?:
- Italian Americans
- African Americans
- Polish Americans
- Chinese Americans
- All the above
What variables put adolescents at risk for alcohol, and other substance abuse?
- Environmental factors
- Peer influence
- Family influence
- Personal characteristics
Eurocentric theories or theorists:
Vilified people of African decent
Stereotyping and generalizing
The African American culture has numerous components including all EXCEPT:
Pursuit of equal rights
Activism involves the politics of:
________ is a psychological defense mechanism in which one attributes to others characteristics that one is unwilling to recognize in oneself.
Which might be behavioral indicators of physical abuse?
An example of a viral infection is?
Which of this is not part of the SAD PERSONS SCALE
Parten conceptualization of children’s play is split into 6 catagories which level involves the child observing play behavior of other children?
When a child is considered to be in imminent danger and it goes to court which of the three processes involves a hearing where the alleged abuse is proven or discounted?
Tuckman reviewed more than 50 studies of mostly therapy and sensitivity groups and
concluded groups go through five predictable stages in which order?
Forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning
Who has advanced a relational model of group development that is most applicable to women’s groups?
Assuming children over the age of 1 year old should not sleep with their parents is a form of:
Gilligan’s moral development addressed on what concept?
The difference between male and female morality
What is Institutional Racism?
Discriminatory acts and policies against a racial group that pervade the major macro systems of society, including the legal, political, economic, and educational systems
According to the Eriksonian theory of psychosocial development, people become concerned with helping, producing for, or guiding the following generation in stage_____.
Stage 7: Generativity Versus Stagnation
Which stage of Kohlberg’s Moral Development focuses on behavior being based on internal ethical principals and decisions are made by whether something is right rather then what is written in law?
What percentage of young women under the age of 20 become pregnant?
Two issues that are significant in adolescence and young adulthood are:
Assertiveness and suicide
- Stage 1: Obedience and Punishment Orientation
- ● decisions made to avoid punishment
- Stage 2: Naive instrumental hedonism
- ● fair trades or exchanges or seeking rewards
- Stage 3: Good boy/girl morality
- ● live up to the expectations of others
- Stage 4: Authority maintaining morality
- ● Obeying laws and respecting authority of societyas a whole
- Stage 5: Social contracts and individual rights
- ● beyond law and self-interests
- Stage 6: Individual principles and conscience
- ● based on universal ethical principles
Basic Trust vs. Basic Mistrust
- ● Infant to 18 months
- ● Freud: Oral Stage
- ● Erikson ego mode: incorporation
- ● Babies are taking things in with all senses
- ● In their interactions they are looking for consistency, reliability, predictability
- ● Babies must learn to trust themselves
Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt
- ● 1 to 3 years old
- ● Freud: Anal Stage
- ● Erikson ego mode: retention and elimination ● Children learn to hold things (both in toileting and physically)
- ● They also learn to let things go or push them away
Initiative vs. Guilt
- ● 3 to 6 years old
- ● Freud: Phallic Stage
- ● Erikson ego mode: intrusion
- ● Intrusion into: ○ “other bodies” ○ “people’s ears and minds” ○ “space by locomotion” ○ “the unknown by consuming curiosity”
Industry vs. Inferiority
- ● 6 to 11 years old
- ● Freud: Latency Stage
- ● Children learn meaningful work and developing attention and diligence ○ Cultural sensitivity: work is defined by the culture
- ● Inferiority is can develop particularly if childhas had dificulty with previous stages
Identity vs. Role Confusion
- ● Adolescence/Puberty
- ● Freud: Genital Stage
- ● Adolescent’s primary task is to establish a sense of ego identity○ a feeling for who you are and your place in society
- ● Teens become “clannish”
- ● Relationships help one establish identity
Stages of social play
- 1. Unoccupied behavior
- 2. Onlooker play
- 3. Solitary play
- 4. Paralel play (age 3)
- 5. Associative play (age 4)
- 6. Cooperative play (age 5)
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