caused by toxin, limber neck in birds (drowns waterfowl)
outbreaks occur in certain conditions (declining water levels, high pH, warm water, reduced O2)
Maggots eat dead waterfowl, birds eat infected maggots/flies
Controls: fluctuating water levels, diminish fly population, remove animal carcasses
rodents and rabbits, bacterial (Francesella
tularensis). Look for lesions on
liver, inflammation of organs.
Transmitted by fleas and ticks.
Humans can contract, can be life threatening if left unthreatened.
elk, bison, caribou, and reindeer.
Bacterial disease (Brucella
ssp.). Transmission by accidental
ingestion of bacteria that are shed by aborting animals. Concern over transmission from wildlife to cattle.
Scarcoptic mange (mammalian)
found primarily in red foxes and coyotes; parasitic arthropod disease caused by mite Scarcoptes scabiei. Erratic behavior in advanced stages. Loss of hair and thick, crusty skin. Tend to have outbreaks in 20 year cycles.
all mammals susceptible to rabies. High risk species include raccoons, foxes, skunks, and bats. Viral disease caused by rhabdovirus. Dumb rabies vs. furious rabies.
can kill turkeys and other seed eating birds
common in waterfowl
highly visible cysts on breasts
does not affect birds or humans
common in waterfowl and raptors
ingestion of lead shot and sinkers
experience starvation prior to death (hatchet breast)
Toxoicosis: gizzard will get compacted, green cloaca
bacterial, highly infection
non-native (from Asia)
Source from poultry farm carcasses
will kill populations rapidly
birds look healthy until necropsy, when lesion on liver and heart.
Controls: early detection, removal of carcasses, habitat management (flood area to dilute cholera)
mammalian (avian eye worm)
Pros and Cons of Point Counts
Advantages: thoroughly sample patchy habitats. Known distances can be flagged. Easier to represent all habitat types.
Disadvantages: may disrupt target species, less efficient, may miss rare species.
Pros and Cons of Line Transects
Advantages: better spatial and temporal coverage, more efficient
Disadvantages: "requires" perpendicular distance, may under-sample certain habitat types, and many biases associated with road transects.
Distance Sampling Assumptions
1) Probability of detecting animal on transect is 1
2) Distances measured without error
3) Populations are closed during surveys
4) No responsive mvt prior to detection
Distance sampling data must include:
-distance and # of birds
-priori covariates (influence detection/density)
-UTM's for density surface modeling
-easy user interface
-robust, empiracal, unbiased parameter estimates
-goodness of fit
Two important sources of variation for site occupancy
1) Space: point of occupancy modeling is to provide inferences for areas that are too large to sample.
2) Detectability: few animals 100% detected
Purpose of Occupancy Modeling
- distribution studies
- meta-population studies
- monitoring and management performance
Assumptions and biases of occupancy modeling
-sites are assumed to be closed
-species are correctly identified
-probability of detecting a species at one site is independent of other sites
Definition of telemetry
a technology that allows for remote measurement and reporting of information