NTD309 Final exam

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NTD309 Final exam
2014-12-08 22:56:56
final study guide nutrition 309

Adolescent, Adult and Elderly Nutrition Fall 2014
Show Answers:

  1. time frame during which the body matures from that of a child to that of a young adult
  2. what age do girls begin puberty?
    age 10.5-14
  3. what age do boys begin puberty/
  4. girls peak weight gain follows
    linear growth spurt
  5. how does lean body mass in girls change during puberty? body fat?
    LBM decreases by 44% and there is a 120% increase in body fat
  6. how much body fat is needed for mensturation
  7. boys peak weight gain?
    after growth spurt about 20lbs per year
  8. when boys go through puberty what happens to their body fat?
    it decreases by 12%
  9. half of bone mass is acquired during
  10. tanner stage 1? 2,3,4? 5?
    • childhood
    • puberty
    • adulthood
  11. what happens at stage 2 for girls? 3? 4?
    • 2-sexually mature
    • 3-growth spurt
    • 4-have period and are done growth
  12. what happens at stage 2,3 in boys? 4?
    • 2,3- hair growth
    • 4 - growth spurt
  13. eating behaviors of adolescents that impact nutritional health?
    • excessive dieting
    • meal skipping
    • uses of unconventional nutrition and non nutritional supplements
    • fad diets
  14. nutrients at risk for deficiency or in excess in teenage diets?
    • folate
    • vitamins A, B6, C and E
    • iron
    • zinc
    • magnesium
    • phosphorus
    • calcium
  15. what is the physical activity recommendation each day for adolescents?
    • 60 minutes or more each day
    • include muscle and bone strengthening activities at least 3 days a week
  16. 3 major types of eating disorders?
    • anorexia nervosa
    • bulimia nervosa
    • binge eating disorder
  17. self starvation
  18. binging and purging
  19. binging, not purging
    binge eating disorder
  20. symptoms of anorexia?
    • fear of fat
    • amenorrhea
    • distorted body image
    • BMI <18%
  21. symptoms of bulimia ?
    • maintain close to normal weight
    • recurring binging or gorging
    • recurring purging
    • overly concerned with body shape and weight
  22. symptoms of binge eating disorders?
    • recurrent binge eating, no purging
    • excessive exercise
    • no fasting
  23. nutritional treatments for easting disorders include
    early diagnosis and a multidisciplinary treatment
  24. goal for treatment of eating disorder
    stabilize weight and stop destructive behaviors
  25. how is a person with an eating disorder assessed?
    • current eating patterns
    • weight loss/gain history
    • current weight
    • motivation to change
    • PEM
  26. why are adolescents more at risk for eating disorders that other age groups?
    thinness is values and adolescents are vulnerable due to physiological and psychological changes
  27. what is the major focus of adulthood nutrition?
    disease prevention and health promotion
  28. how is adulthood different from any other life stages?
    • the nutritional emphasis is no longer focused on growing, but maintaining
    • you want to maintain physical status, avoid excess fat, and decrease risk for chronic disease
  29. muscle loss
  30. a constellation of metabolic abnormalities that increases the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases
    metabolic syndrome
  31. what is metabolic syndrome characterized by?
    • insulin resistance
    • abdominal obesity
    • high blood pressure and triglyceride levels
    • low HDL cholesterol
    • elevated fasting glucose
  32. leading cause for diabetes and heart disease
    metabolic syndrome
  33. a disease characterized by high blood glucose levels due to the body's inability to use insulin normally or to produce enough insulin
    type 2 diabetes
  34. average number of years of life remaining for persons in a population
    life expectancy
  35. life expectancy is most commonly reported as
    life expectancy from birth
  36. max number of years humans as a species can live (110-120)
    life span
  37. condition in which cells resist the action of insulin in facilitating the passage of glucose into cells
    insulin resistance
  38. contributors of insulin resistance?
    • obesity
    • low physical activity
    • genetic predisposition
    • abdominal obesity
  39. three nutrition related chronic diseases are
    • hypertension
    • cardiovascular disease
    • cancer
  40. four leading causes of chronic disease are
    • lack of physical acitivty
    • poor nutrition
    • tobacco use
    • excessive alcohol use
  41. what is the recommended physical activity amounts each day for adults to maintain their weight?
    atleast 30 minutes of physical activity each day and resistance training 2 to 3 times a week for 30 minutesĀ a day
  42. pancreatic beta cells destroyed and daily insulin injections required
    type 1 diabetes
  43. insulin resistance related to obesity, slow death of beta cells
    type 2 diabetes
  44. why would someone with undiagnosed diabetes lose weight, be really thirsty, and have blurry vision?
    because they are noticing short term symptoms and need to be treated and diagnosed
  45. long term affects of diabetes?
    • heart disease
    • hypertension
    • stroke
    • blindness
    • kidney failure
    • poor circulation and loss of limbs
  46. the five measurements that are used for diagnosis of metabolic syndrome are
    • large waistline
    • high triglyceride level
    • low HDL cholesterol level
    • high blood pressure
  47. advice to people with diabetes in family?
    eat lots of whole grains, fruits and vegetables
  48. is chronological age a good determinant for physical and mental capabilities for adults, elderly?
  49. what is a better question to ask rather than age in your nutritional assessment?
    • disease
    • eating poorly
    • tooth loss
    • economic hardship
    • reduced social contact
    • multiple medications
    • involuntary weight loss/gain
    • needs medication
    • elderly person
  51. what does central adiposity increase risk factors for?
    • cardiovascular disease
    • hypertension
    • diabetes
  52. what are the threshold waist measurements for men that increase their risk for cardiovascular disease? women?
    • men- at risk if >40in
    • women- at risk if >35in
  53. a 4 year period of decreasing estrogen production followed by the end of mensturation
  54. what foods may be beneficial in decreasing the symptoms of menopause?
    • foods high in phytoestrogens which include:
    • -lignans and isoflavones
  55. lignans?
    • whole grains
    • beans
    • pasta
    • flaxseed
  56. isoflavones?
  57. what is soy said to do for menopause?
    said to decrease hot flashes
  58. what are the iron needs of women after menopause?
    8 mg/day
  59. which of the factors of health status can you control?
    lifestyle factors
  60. which of the factors of health status can you not control?
    • genetics
    • access to good healthcare
    • environmental factors
  61. percentage that genetics effect on health status
  62. percentage access to good healthcare effect on health status
  63. percentage environmental factors have on health status
  64. percentage lifestyle factors have on health status
  65. age related physiological changes that affect nutritional health for the elderly -- decreases?
    • saliva production
    • stomach secretions
    • lactase secretion
    • cardiac output
    • blood volume
    • vitamin absorption
  66. age related physiological changes that affect nutritional health for the elderly -- increases?
    • blood pressure
    • body weight
    • bone loss
    • major changes in body composition
  67. promote a fast and easy weight loss
    fad diets
  68. risks of fad diets?
    • inadequate nutrient supply
    • food combinations
    • strict limitations
    • gimmicks
  69. what theory on aging is nutrition related?
    calorie-restriction and longevity
  70. explain calorie restriction and longevity theory?
    says that you should eat about 30% less the amount of calories than recommended
  71. how many calories do women eat in the calorie and longevity theory? males?
    • w- 1540
    • m- 2030
  72. what does the calorie and longevity theory lead to?
    • increase obsessions about food
    • and low calories lead to decrease reproduction, growth development and healing
  73. disruption of bone architecture and reduced bone mass which results from an imbalance of available nutrients, shifts in hormones or both
  74. why are elderly at risk for osteoporosis?
    • your bone mass begins to decline once you reach age 30
    • inadequate building of peak bone mass coupled with bone loss leads to low bone density
  75. why are high protein diets bad for bone health?
    • they do not lead to excess calcium excretion in urine
    • they are associated with lower intestinal absorption and increased PTH levels
  76. what is the role of vitamin D in bone health?
    help maintain skeletal reserves
  77. shortage of vitamin D delays?
    bone mineralization
  78. why would elderly be at risk for vitamin D deficieny?
    during the process of aging it results in a slow increase of PTH as well as a decrease in the skin's ability to make vit D, both leading to bone loss
  79. where is B12 found?
    in animal products
  80. what type of vitamin is B12?
    water soluble
  81. functions of B12?
    • memory
    • make red blood cells and for the cell division
  82. how is memory affected during B12 deficiency?
    see cognition and neurological problems
  83. how are RBC affected if B12 deficiency?
    RBC would never break down, leading to macrocitic cell anemia
  84. how is b12 absorbed?
    eat in food, but only recognized with intrinsic factor
  85. inflammation of stomach where high amts of h-pylore bacteria make stomach cell walls become inflamed
    atropic gastritis
  86. during atropic gastrisis what happens to the intrinsic factor cells?
    they are compromised and therefore B12 cannot be absorbed
  87. only way to increase B12 intake?
    inject right into blood
  88. what role does HCL and intrinisic factor play in B12 deficiency in the elderly?
    a bacterial overgrowth of the stomach leads to inflammation and decreased secretion of HCL and subsequent inability to split vit B12 from its food protein carrier
  89. why is dehydration a risk for the elderly?
    • result of illness
    • less sensitive to detecting thirst
    • may not think to drink
    • swallowing problems
    • depression
    • dementia
  90. used as a tool for meal planning and managing carb intake throughout the day
    exchange list for meal planning