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time frame during which the body matures from that of a child to that of a young adult
what age do girls begin puberty?
what age do boys begin puberty/
girls peak weight gain follows
linear growth spurt
how does lean body mass in girls change during puberty? body fat?
LBM decreases by 44% and there is a 120% increase in body fat
how much body fat is needed for mensturation
boys peak weight gain?
after growth spurt about 20lbs per year
when boys go through puberty what happens to their body fat?
it decreases by 12%
half of bone mass is acquired during
tanner stage 1? 2,3,4? 5?
what happens at stage 2 for girls? 3? 4?
- 2-sexually mature
- 3-growth spurt
- 4-have period and are done growth
what happens at stage 2,3 in boys? 4?
- 2,3- hair growth
- 4 - growth spurt
eating behaviors of adolescents that impact nutritional health?
- excessive dieting
- meal skipping
- uses of unconventional nutrition and non nutritional supplements
- fad diets
nutrients at risk for deficiency or in excess in teenage diets?
- vitamins A, B6, C and E
what is the physical activity recommendation each day for adolescents?
- 60 minutes or more each day
- include muscle and bone strengthening activities at least 3 days a week
3 major types of eating disorders?
- anorexia nervosa
- bulimia nervosa
- binge eating disorder
binging and purging
binging, not purging
binge eating disorder
symptoms of anorexia?
- fear of fat
- distorted body image
- BMI <18%
symptoms of bulimia ?
- maintain close to normal weight
- recurring binging or gorging
- recurring purging
- overly concerned with body shape and weight
symptoms of binge eating disorders?
- recurrent binge eating, no purging
- excessive exercise
- no fasting
nutritional treatments for easting disorders include
early diagnosis and a multidisciplinary treatment
goal for treatment of eating disorder
stabilize weight and stop destructive behaviors
how is a person with an eating disorder assessed?
- current eating patterns
- weight loss/gain history
- current weight
- motivation to change
why are adolescents more at risk for eating disorders that other age groups?
thinness is values and adolescents are vulnerable due to physiological and psychological changes
what is the major focus of adulthood nutrition?
disease prevention and health promotion
how is adulthood different from any other life stages?
- the nutritional emphasis is no longer focused on growing, but maintaining
- you want to maintain physical status, avoid excess fat, and decrease risk for chronic disease
a constellation of metabolic abnormalities that increases the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases
what is metabolic syndrome characterized by?
- insulin resistance
- abdominal obesity
- high blood pressure and triglyceride levels
- low HDL cholesterol
- elevated fasting glucose
leading cause for diabetes and heart disease
a disease characterized by high blood glucose levels due to the body's inability to use insulin normally or to produce enough insulin
type 2 diabetes
average number of years of life remaining for persons in a population
life expectancy is most commonly reported as
life expectancy from birth
max number of years humans as a species can live (110-120)
condition in which cells resist the action of insulin in facilitating the passage of glucose into cells
contributors of insulin resistance?
- low physical activity
- genetic predisposition
- abdominal obesity
three nutrition related chronic diseases are
- cardiovascular disease
four leading causes of chronic disease are
- lack of physical acitivty
- poor nutrition
- tobacco use
- excessive alcohol use
what is the recommended physical activity amounts each day for adults to maintain their weight?
atleast 30 minutes of physical activity each day and resistance training 2 to 3 times a week for 30 minutes a day
pancreatic beta cells destroyed and daily insulin injections required
type 1 diabetes
insulin resistance related to obesity, slow death of beta cells
type 2 diabetes
why would someone with undiagnosed diabetes lose weight, be really thirsty, and have blurry vision?
because they are noticing short term symptoms and need to be treated and diagnosed
long term affects of diabetes?
- heart disease
- kidney failure
- poor circulation and loss of limbs
the five measurements that are used for diagnosis of metabolic syndrome are
- large waistline
- high triglyceride level
- low HDL cholesterol level
- high blood pressure
advice to people with diabetes in family?
eat lots of whole grains, fruits and vegetables
is chronological age a good determinant for physical and mental capabilities for adults, elderly?
what is a better question to ask rather than age in your nutritional assessment?
- eating poorly
- tooth loss
- economic hardship
- reduced social contact
- multiple medications
- involuntary weight loss/gain
- needs medication
- elderly person
what does central adiposity increase risk factors for?
- cardiovascular disease
what are the threshold waist measurements for men that increase their risk for cardiovascular disease? women?
- men- at risk if >40in
- women- at risk if >35in
a 4 year period of decreasing estrogen production followed by the end of mensturation
what foods may be beneficial in decreasing the symptoms of menopause?
- foods high in phytoestrogens which include:
- -lignans and isoflavones
- whole grains
what is soy said to do for menopause?
said to decrease hot flashes
what are the iron needs of women after menopause?
which of the factors of health status can you control?
which of the factors of health status can you not control?
- access to good healthcare
- environmental factors
percentage that genetics effect on health status
percentage access to good healthcare effect on health status
percentage environmental factors have on health status
percentage lifestyle factors have on health status
age related physiological changes that affect nutritional health for the elderly -- decreases?
- saliva production
- stomach secretions
- lactase secretion
- cardiac output
- blood volume
- vitamin absorption
age related physiological changes that affect nutritional health for the elderly -- increases?
- blood pressure
- body weight
- bone loss
- major changes in body composition
promote a fast and easy weight loss
risks of fad diets?
- inadequate nutrient supply
- food combinations
- strict limitations
what theory on aging is nutrition related?
calorie-restriction and longevity
explain calorie restriction and longevity theory?
says that you should eat about 30% less the amount of calories than recommended
how many calories do women eat in the calorie and longevity theory? males?
what does the calorie and longevity theory lead to?
- increase obsessions about food
- and low calories lead to decrease reproduction, growth development and healing
disruption of bone architecture and reduced bone mass which results from an imbalance of available nutrients, shifts in hormones or both
why are elderly at risk for osteoporosis?
- your bone mass begins to decline once you reach age 30
- inadequate building of peak bone mass coupled with bone loss leads to low bone density
why are high protein diets bad for bone health?
- they do not lead to excess calcium excretion in urine
- they are associated with lower intestinal absorption and increased PTH levels
what is the role of vitamin D in bone health?
help maintain skeletal reserves
shortage of vitamin D delays?
why would elderly be at risk for vitamin D deficieny?
during the process of aging it results in a slow increase of PTH as well as a decrease in the skin's ability to make vit D, both leading to bone loss
where is B12 found?
in animal products
what type of vitamin is B12?
functions of B12?
- make red blood cells and for the cell division
how is memory affected during B12 deficiency?
see cognition and neurological problems
how are RBC affected if B12 deficiency?
RBC would never break down, leading to macrocitic cell anemia
how is b12 absorbed?
eat in food, but only recognized with intrinsic factor
inflammation of stomach where high amts of h-pylore bacteria make stomach cell walls become inflamed
during atropic gastrisis what happens to the intrinsic factor cells?
they are compromised and therefore B12 cannot be absorbed
only way to increase B12 intake?
inject right into blood
what role does HCL and intrinisic factor play in B12 deficiency in the elderly?
a bacterial overgrowth of the stomach leads to inflammation and decreased secretion of HCL and subsequent inability to split vit B12 from its food protein carrier
why is dehydration a risk for the elderly?
- result of illness
- less sensitive to detecting thirst
- may not think to drink
- swallowing problems
used as a tool for meal planning and managing carb intake throughout the day
exchange list for meal planning