Anthro final chp 8

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  1. ____ is determined biologically, while ____ is culturally constructed
    • sex (male or female)
    • gender (man or woman)
  2. Women have ___ ___chromosomes, and men have an __ and a __.
    • two X
    • X,Y
  3. The _____determines a baby’s sex because only he has the ___chromosome to transmit. The ____ always provides an____ chromosome.
    • father
    • y
    • mother
    • x
  4. sexual dimporphism
    differences in male and female biology besides the contrasts in breasts and genitals.

    (men and women differ in genitalia, reproductive organs, height, weight, strength, longevity)
  5. gender
    the cultural construction of whether one is female, male, or something else.
  6. gender roles
    the tasks and activities a culture assigns by gender.
  7. gender stereotypes
    strongly held ideas about the characteristics of males and females.
  8. gender stratification
    an unequal distribution of rewards ( socially valued resources, power, prestige, human rights, and personal freedom) between men and women, reflecting their different positions in a social hierarchy.
  9. universality of a division of labor by gender and the different hypotheses:
    • different tasks assigned to men and women
    • all societies have some kind of division of labor by gender.
    • kinds of work vary between men and women throughout societies and time
    • theres nothing about biology that says boys can or cant hunt - its all in peoples heads

    • 3 types of hypothesis:
    • strength: men are stronger than women
    • fertility maintenance: hormonal changes in women involving strenuous exercises
    • child care compatibility: tasks based on things that dont take women away from breastfeeding or too far from home
  10. division of labor in horticulture
    • men clear and prepare the land
    • women gather
  11. division of labor in intensive agriculture
    • men: more domestication of animals; plowing
    • women: increase in non agricultural tasks
  12. history of gender roles in Western industrial societies
    the doctrine of separate spheres
    what have been some of the biological justifications for women's insecure
    jobs in this context
    • prior to industrial revolution home is a part of production and reproduction
    • when capital industry moved to factories women had greater control of household sphere and men over public sphere. Ideal in early 19th century that men made the money

    biological justifications for womens roles in job context is menstruation - idea of hormonal swings affecting womens work and arent given jobs involving logical thinking
  13. intersex (hermaphrodite)
    group of conditions involving a discrepancy between the external genitals ( penis, vagina, etc.) and the internal genitals ( testes, ovaries, etc.). ambiguous genitalia male and female genitals
  14. ___ is biological (determines male or female)
  15. ____ is culturally constructed and variable throughout the world (determines man or woman)
  16. gender inequality
    • inequality of men and women
    • the idea that women are not privileged or dominant over men
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Anthro final chp 8
2014-12-14 05:18:21

final chp 8
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