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things that can be acquired, saved, used, passed down to new generation (not necessarily for human capital) to develop other stuff (generate profits)- helps people to be productive in future- can include: labor, land
- skills that people possess— resulting from training, a job, experiences— can increase the ‘value’ of a person on the job market- considered to directly affect personal productivity— these skills can be directly applied to the job market, increase likelihood of economic success
Why is Haiti the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere?
has history of instability, poor government- most population dependent on small-scale subsistence agriculture
What are Haiti's rates of poverty and literacy?
about 80% of population below poverty line- less than 1/3 of adults have formal jobs— informal economy – not officially recognized, ‘under the table’, no taxes involved- about ½ population literate- average of less than 3 years formal education
How is the human capital of Jamaica different from the human capital of Haiti?
- Haiti has low levels of education for 1st generation immigrants (compounded by overall low human capital), likelihood of second (or more) generations being upwardly socially mobile are small
- Jamaica:relatively high educational attainment (earned in Jamaica)
What does the term 'brain drain' refer to?
— constitute a brain drain on Jamaica (educated, more professional take their education (a form of human capital) and use it to do well in another, more developed country)- former British colony, so speak English (an advantage)
How homogeneous is the Middle East?
Do immigrants use an inordinate amount of social services?
- Use of services are low due to vulnerability of legal status.
- not as much as people think.
What are two ways that 'others' are devalued?
- They are described as less than human (missing link)
- Demean (humiliate)religious practices.
what were the pull and push factors for immigrants coming into the US from China in the mid 1800s?
- PUSH- unrest in China (social, political, economic, military)- ongoing drought in China
- PULL-hope of money with gold rush- need for labor (around mining camps; building of RR)
What is the concept of 'Yellow Peril'
- example of ‘social creation (social construction) of racial group’
Which groups has 'Yellow Peril" been applied to?
initially used to degrade Chinese immigrants- then used to degrade Japanese immigrants
Why were the initial immigrants from China accepted?
- — initially low numbers
- — considered ‘unique’ / ‘exotic’
- — were willing to do unwanted jobs
Why were they later rejected?
- increased numbers
- — economic down turn, fewer jobs
- - Chinese immigrants devalued:
- — less than human
- — heathens— not trustworthy
- — capable of great evil & violence
how have the ups and downs of economy impacted how people in the U.S view immigrants from mexico?
essentially - economy is good, acceptance; economy not good - not just lack of acceptance, but active prejudice, discrimination increases
early 1900s – good economy, acceptance- 1920s – good economy, acceptance- 1930s – depression, non-acceptance of cheap labor from Mexico
How has the need to move from one job to another impacted the children of agricultural workers.
school - children moving with parents from one agricultural job to another - in addition to poor schools - had limited education due to moving aboutissue of children in field labor – continues today where managers ‘look the other way’
Who was Cesar Chavez?
Cesar Chavez - best known - United Farm Workers
What did Cesar help establish?
United Farm Workers (1st union to successfully represent migrant (Mexican American and others, including Filipino, African American and poor White) workers
what were the reason for the Grape Boycott? (not just as a negative impact to the growers, a means of letting majority society understand the work conditions of migrant workers)
boycott of grapes - getting ‘others’ to know, understand, be interested in the plight ofothers— worked - agricultural workers gained significant work / pay improvements
What type of relationship does US have with Puerto Rico?
overall relationship with US based on colonization- since 1917 Puerto Ricans are US citizens
How is the perception of race and social status different in Puerto Rico than on the US mainland?
Puerto Rico has much greater diversity - mixture of people from Africa, indigenous peoples, European background— concept of ‘race’ is not dichotomous in Puerto Rico as on mainland (i.e. Black versus White)— in Puerto Rico, more important than race is SES (socio-economic status)- in coming to mainland
Do Puerto Rican migrants on the mainland encounter problems from being an immigrant group or colonized group?
many Puerto Ricans don’t understand prejudice, discrimination based on skin color- Puerto Ricans in US have elements of both colonized group and immigrant group
who is Bautista? Who is Castro?
until the end of the Spanish American War Cuba was a colony of Spain- with end of the Spanish American War, Cuba became an independent nation— however the US remained heavily involved in Cuba, even having US troops occupy Cuba twice- after Castro - Castro overthrew Bautista
what happened to cuba's elite when Castro took over?
initially upper classes, educated, fit into US mainstream society— were, in general accepted; including great acceptance due to having escaped from Communism— were also give advantages that others did not get- subsequent immigrations - individuals of lower socio-economic status (SES); currently still ‘boat people’
why did Cuban immigrate to the US (especially the first wave) have an easier time assimilating than other Hispanic groups?
Elite: escaping Castro, Communism, openly accepted - had values that fit in more with US middle class (partly due to education)
be able to compare and contrast African Americans and native Americans.
- both groups were conquered, colonized
- Native Americans / Amerindians more able to preserve culture – were conquered as groups (these groups were better able to retain culture, etc) – African Americans were divided up on the slave system, cultures could not be passed down whole – rather a new culture emerged – combination of numerous African cultures and majority Euro / US culture- In general Native Americans more able to retain aspects of culture as compared to African Americans
what do we know about the substinence technology of the various groups indigenous to what became the US?
Subsistence technology: primarily hunting, gathering – but hardly all – many lived in somewhat settled villages with gardens; some had cities and agriculture
What is the relationship between subsistance technology and values and norms?
A group’s subsistence technology impacts values and norms; a hunting / gathering subsistence technology requires emphasis on values of cooperation, sharing (needed to survive where necessities can be scarce) where solidarity, cohesion are important
how can this help us understand the values and norms of many native american cultures?
– very different from the more independent cultural expectations of many European groups; the US, as it developed had even more independence expectations
how did the world view and religious view of native Americans differ from the world view and religious view of Europeans?
Biggest difference: world view – traditional religious views do not acknowledge one god; not just multiple god-figures, but the sacred is considered to be in all of nature, including land, mountains, bodies of water
what is the role of humans in the native american view? what is the overall goal in the native american view?
- Humans are only one aspect of the unity: universe – humans are neither lesser than nor greater than nature
- Overall goal: to live in harmony with nature (need nature to provide necessities, which are more likely when nature is allowed to self-adjust)
In general, how do native Americans and Euro-americans differ regarding the relative importance of the group and the individual?
Group more important than individual (aligns with need for cohesion, solidarity, cooperation)— Group: extended family, tribe, clan— Child rearing practices reflected these values of group over individual
Why do societies that are more hunting and gathering have more egalitarian relationships?
hunting, gathering societies very low on ability to accrue resources, little build up of surplus; result: greater degree of egalitarianism
Both native Americans on reservations and African Americans in slavery lived under paternalistic control. what were the similarities and differences?
- In case of Native Americans paternalism largely through BIA (Bureau of Indian Affairs) –(justice, budgets, schools, tribal membership) reservations (reserved lands) and boarding schools
- means of controlling things such as food- Those who cooperate rewarded / if not cooperate, not rewarded
What effect did 'termination' have on some American Indian Groups?
1953 – termination – about 100 tribes were ‘terminated’ – striped of their status as a group recognized by the US government (included private ownership of land and other resources, treaties no longer in effect (actually, very little about these treaties had been honored anyway)- Groups that lost their legal status as tribes also lost other benefits such as health care, which is provided only to persons recognized as Native American by the US government
What was the primary accomplishment of the attempt at urbanizing American Indians?
became a failure – it predominately accomplished moving poor American Indians from the poverty of reservations to the poverty of the inner cities- In the cities, American Indians no longer had support of reservation community- Due to inadequate education, ongoing prejudice / discrimination, many American Indians did not get good jobs, did get inadequate housing, etc
What happen at Alcatraz? Why did some Native Americans feel they should have Alcatraz?
Occupation of Alcatraz Island (by San Francisco Bay) 1969 – the federal prison on Alcatraz had been abandoned and an old treaty allowed any abandoned federal land to become Native American land— Native Americans (largely through American Indian Movement) occupied the island – occupation lasted around 4 years, but did not end with the island becoming Native American territory
What are potential drawbacks to bringing industrialization to Native American reservations?
partly due to the availability of resources on reservations, also due to lower overhead, some commercial enterprises have brought manufacturing, jobs onto reservations- However, even this situation has greater benefit for dominant group, less forAmerican Indian group— ‘better’ jobs – such as management go to members of dominant group, while the lesser paying jobs go to members of the reservation – overall, not all that great (income is less, reduced chances of promotions)— for some groups the resources bring danger (ex: radiation) to those mining them
how was life in rural south different from and similar to life in the urban north for African Americans?
What is de jure segregation?
segregation by law (entitled, rightfully such)
What is the relationship between de jure segreagation, Plessey v Ferguson and Brown v Board of Education?
- initial case about public transportation - could public transportation have different accommodations for Blacks and Whites – Supreme Court finding?
- Brown v Board of Education - 1954 - Topeka Kansas - overturned Plessey v Fergusson- beginning of desegregation of schools
- initiated by NAACP – case was about a little girl, Linda Brown and whether she could attend a white school— NAACP used this case as a test case for de-segregation of schools in south, and throughout US
What was the Plessey v Ferguson Ruling? How did it impact US society?
– yes, can have separate as long as they are equal- unfortunately the result was separate (applied also to schools, recreation, housing, etc) – but by no means equal
What is de facto segregation? How voluntary is de facto segregation?
De Facto segregation - voluntary? - not really – school boards, real estate boards, zoning boards make decisions that are actually racist, but not officially sanctioned by legal system
What does the phrase 'race' is a social construct refer to?
that is societies determine what the criteria for one 'race' or another is and then create a hierarchy where the dominant class puts themselves at the top of the hierarchy
Why is it important to understand that race is a social construct?
examine race – learn how and why it impacts our social environment- NO biological proof of different 'races' or biological differences to determine'race'- however, we still need to discuss race because, as a social construct, race does impact us - a social construct is created by a society and has consequences which are social
What are the differences between race and ethnicity?
ace – perceived physical differencesethnicity – perceived cultural differences; through processes of socialization
What are racial ethnic groups?
- both race and ethnicity is considered.
- racial ethnic groups socially subordinated / culturally distinct groups within US1. systematic discrimination 2. distinctive cultural arrangement
Are the categories and the relative ranking of racial groups static (fixed no change)?
racial ethnic groups / proportions of racial ethnic groups have been changing in US and will continue changing
How does the idea that White families are the natural, normal families impact society?
- we need to turn it around – family does not ‘make’ society; family is an outgrowth of society (and, therefore is impacted by society)
- social structure impacts family rather than family creates its own social structure (blame the victim)
What is the relationship between race, socio-economic status (SES), power and authority?
his racial order, this hierarchy determines degrees of power - race is about power relations between groups of people and groups that are differentially situated in society according to socio-economic status (SES), access to power, authority far-reaching consequences
Why is the social deficit approach to attempting to understand stratification inappropriate?
1. family life reduced to culture of group / family perceived as foundation for society as a whole and for this component of society2. blames the victim does not consider other, important, structural factors such as income3. considers African American, Hispanic American families, etc as being monolithic
What does 'fictive kin' refer to? Why are extended kinship system important in so sub-cultures?
informal support networks- patterns of fictive kin, extended kin, support networks not just shaped by culture are often the result of social conditions
What is the relationship between racism and limited resources?
increased likelihood of female headed households, out of wedlock births, divorcewithin groups