anthro final chp 10

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  1. ethnicity
    • sense of group membership based on shared history, language, or religion
    • ascribed status
  2. ethnic group
    • members share certain beliefs, values, habits, customs, and norms because of their common background.
    • define themselves as different and special because of cultural features like language, religion, experience, geographic placement, kinship, or “ race”
  3. racial classification
    assigning people to discrete categories based on common ancestry
  4. phenotype
    the observable or detectable physical characteristics of an organism

    ex. skin and eye color, facial features, blood type
  5. race
    • people who belong to the same genetic stock
    • culturally constructed
  6. racism
    discrimination against ethnic groups
  7. fluidity of racial categories in Brazil
    • lacks hypodescent rule
    • fluid and flexible.
    • Race is determined by individual's parents, phenotype, and socioeconomic status.
    • race can change as they become wealthier or poorer
  8. hypodecent
    the rule that automatically places children of a union of different groups in the minority group

    important bc it is how race is determined in the U.S. Because of hypodescent, race in the U.S. is fixed at birth and does not change.
  9. hypodescent and ascribed status in the United States
    rigid and fixed at birth
  10. Why is it important to understand that social race is a cultural construction and not biological?
    cultural constructions are not fixed, but rather dynamic and can change over time
  11. social race
    a group that is assumed to have a biological basis but is actually defined in a culturally arbitrary manner
  12. Are all systems of human racial classification around the world the same?
    • No, because human racial classification is a cultural construction
    • there is no universal system of classifying race
    • each culture has its own way of determining race.
  13. rule of decent
    assigns social identity on the basis of ancestry
  14. burakumin
    a hereditary group who for centuries were the untouchables of Japanese society.
  15. assimilation
    process of change that a minority group experiences when it moves to a country where another culture dominates
  16. ethnocide
    A dominant group destroying certain ethnic practices of an ethnic group
  17. genocide
    physical extinction of a racial group through mass murder
  18. genotype
    an organism's entire genetic makeup
  19. stereotypes
    Fixed ideas— often unfavorable— about what members of a group are like.
  20. discrimination
    Policies and practices that harm a group and its members.
  21. prejudice
    looking down on a group because of its  behavior, values, capabilities, or attributes.
  22. refugees
    People who have been forced or who have chosen to flee a country, to escape persecution or war.
  23. homosapiens
    has not evolved subspecies or distinct races.
  24. cultural colonialism
    domination by one ethnic group or nationality and its culture/ ideology over others
  25. plural society
    society that combines ethnic contrasts, ecological specialization and the economic interdependence of those groups.
  26. multiculturalism
    • The view of cultural diversity in a country as something good and desirable
    • a multicultural society socializes individuals not only into the dominant culture, but also into an ethnic culture.
  27. forced assimilation
    forces ethnic group members to adopt the dominant culture
  28. Franz Boas and what he said about race
    • race, language, and culture have independent histories
    • RACE does not equal CULTURE
    • culture more than biology influences who we are
  29. culture
    values, ideas, expectations, and practices shared by members of a community.
  30. historical particularism
    • each society has its own unique historical development and must be understood based on its own specific cultural and environmental context, especially its historical process
    • Coined by boas - Boas says that cultures and societies evolve in their own unique ways and have unique destinations of their own even though cultures may be alike in some fashion.
  31. what influence Boas had on anthropology
    • father of american anhropology
    • race, culture, language are individual entities
    • similar to malinowski & participant observation
    • responsible for cultural relativism
  32. emphasis on culture and not on biology as an explanation.
    • Culture is the shared values, norms, symbols, language, objects, and way of life that is passed on from one generation to the next.
    • Because of our biology and genetics, we have a particular form and we have certain abilities.
  33. hispanic
    • fastest- growing ethnic group in the United States
    • category based mainly on language.
    • includes Whites, Blacks, and “ racially” mixed Spanish speakers and their ethnically conscious descendants
    • lumps together people of diverse geographic origin— Puerto Rico, Mexico, Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, the Dominican Republic, and other Spanish-speaking countries of Central and South America and the Caribbean
  34. latina
    is an ethnic ( and gendered-female) rather than a racial category
  35. social identity
    one's sense of self as a member of a social group. could be assigned on the basis of ancestry
  36. endogamous decent group
    • Races in America (descent groups) marry within their own group
    • examples: Asians marry other Asians; middle class marry other middle class
  37. Biological Views of Race
    biology does not recognize race
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anthro final chp 10
2014-12-15 00:30:22
chp 10

final chp 10
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