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- sense of group membership based on shared history, language, or religion
- ascribed status
- members share certain beliefs, values, habits, customs, and norms because of their common background.
- define themselves as different and special because of cultural features like language, religion, experience, geographic placement, kinship, or “ race”
assigning people to discrete categories based on common ancestry
the observable or detectable physical characteristics of an organism
ex. skin and eye color, facial features, blood type
- people who belong to the same genetic stock
- culturally constructed
discrimination against ethnic groups
fluidity of racial categories in Brazil
- lacks hypodescent rule
- fluid and flexible.
- Race is determined by individual's parents, phenotype, and socioeconomic status.
- race can change as they become wealthier or poorer
the rule that automatically places children of a union of different groups in the minority group
important bc it is how race is determined in the U.S. Because of hypodescent, race in the U.S. is fixed at birth and does not change.
hypodescent and ascribed status in the United States
rigid and fixed at birth
Why is it important to understand that social race is a cultural construction and not biological?
cultural constructions are not fixed, but rather dynamic and can change over time
a group that is assumed to have a biological basis but is actually defined in a culturally arbitrary manner
Are all systems of human racial classification around the world the same?
- No, because human racial classification is a cultural construction
- there is no universal system of classifying race
- each culture has its own way of determining race.
rule of decent
assigns social identity on the basis of ancestry
a hereditary group who for centuries were the untouchables of Japanese society.
process of change that a minority group experiences when it moves to a country where another culture dominates
A dominant group destroying certain ethnic practices of an ethnic group
physical extinction of a racial group through mass murder
an organism's entire genetic makeup
Fixed ideas— often unfavorable— about what members of a group are like.
Policies and practices that harm a group and its members.
looking down on a group because of its behavior, values, capabilities, or attributes.
People who have been forced or who have chosen to flee a country, to escape persecution or war.
has not evolved subspecies or distinct races.
domination by one ethnic group or nationality and its culture/ ideology over others
society that combines ethnic contrasts, ecological specialization and the economic interdependence of those groups.
- The view of cultural diversity in a country as something good and desirable
- a multicultural society socializes individuals not only into the dominant culture, but also into an ethnic culture.
forces ethnic group members to adopt the dominant culture
Franz Boas and what he said about race
- race, language, and culture have independent histories
- RACE does not equal CULTURE
- culture more than biology influences who we are
values, ideas, expectations, and practices shared by members of a community.
- each society has its own unique historical development and must be understood based on its own specific cultural and environmental context, especially its historical process
- Coined by boas - Boas says that cultures and societies evolve in their own unique ways and have unique destinations of their own even though cultures may be alike in some fashion.
what influence Boas had on anthropology
- father of american anhropology
- race, culture, language are individual entities
- similar to malinowski & participant observation
- responsible for cultural relativism
emphasis on culture and not on biology as an explanation.
- Culture is the shared values, norms, symbols, language, objects, and way of life that is passed on from one generation to the next.
- Because of our biology and genetics, we have a particular form and we have certain abilities.
- fastest- growing ethnic group in the United States
- category based mainly on language.
- includes Whites, Blacks, and “ racially” mixed Spanish speakers and their ethnically conscious descendants
- lumps together people of diverse geographic origin— Puerto Rico, Mexico, Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, the Dominican Republic, and other Spanish-speaking countries of Central and South America and the Caribbean
is an ethnic ( and gendered-female) rather than a racial category
one's sense of self as a member of a social group. could be assigned on the basis of ancestry
endogamous decent group
- Races in America (descent groups) marry within their own group
- examples: Asians marry other Asians; middle class marry other middle class
Biological Views of Race
biology does not recognize race