The flashcards below were created by user Cadence on FreezingBlue Flashcards.

  1. Bycatch
    Fish that are harvested, but which are not sold or kept for personal use, including economic and regulatory discards
  2. Marine Protected Areas (MPA)
    • Areas where human activity has been placed under some restrictions
    • not necessarily off limits to all commercial use
  3. Name 3 Aquaculture recommendations for fisheries sustainability
    • farming species lower on food web
    • improve feed management, efficiency
    • develop integrated fish farming systems
    • promote environmentally sound practices and resource management
  4. Name 3 Negative impacts of aquaculture
    • destruction of mangrove forests, coastal wetlands
    • use of wild caught fish to stock operations (increases bycatch)
    • increased pressure on small ocean fish for fish meal (increases bycatch, depletes food source for wild fish)
    • transport of fish diseases, non-native fish to new waters
    • nutrient pollution of coastal waters
  5. Image Upload
    • DDT
    • Persistant Organic Toxin
  6. Persistent pollutants
    • Pollutants that remain in the environment for many years
    • heavy metals
    • persistent organic compounds
  7. Image Upload
    • PCB
    • Persistant Organic Toxin
  8. National Marine Fisheries Service (NOAA Fisheries)
    science-based conservation and management, promotion of healthy ecosystems
  9. Classifying an overfished fishery – 2 main components
    • fishing mortality rate (F)
    • stock biomass (B)
  10. If F is > maximum fishing mortality threshold (MFMT)
    the stock is being overfished
  11. If B level has fallen below the minimum stock size threshold (MSST)
    the stock is being overfished
  12. Corrective measures to overfishing
    • Prohibit all harvest (i.e., all sources of fishing mortality) of the overfished stocks
    • Allow harvest in accordance with a rebuilding program
  13. Benefits of Marine Reserves: Name 3
    • increases in the abundance, diversity and productivity of marine organisms
    • decreased mortality, decreased habitat destruction and to indirect ecosystem effects
    • reduce the probability of extinction for marine species resident within them
    • increased reserve size results in increased benefits, but small reserves beneficial, too
    • full protection is critical to achieve this full range of benefits
  14. Ecological effects outside reserve boundaries
    • increase in size and abundance of exploited species in adjacent area
    • replenishment of regional population by larval export
  15. Ecological effects of reserve networks
    • greater protection for marine communities than a single reserve; buffers against vagaries of environmental differences
    • provide a stable platform for the long-term persistence of marine communities when networks encompass large areas
  16. Coral Bleaching
    • zooxanthellae expelled
    • stress due to:
    • Temperature
    • light
    • nutrients
    • pH
  17. Risks to coral reefs: Name 3
    • Poaching
    • Sedimentation
    • Pollution
    • Coastal development
    • Overfishing
  18. Water quality objectives for the Chesapeake Bay TMDL include criteria for:
    A. Widening of the shipping channel
    B. Reduction of agricultural runoff
    C. Dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll a, and water clarity
    D. Reduction of wastewater effluent
    E. Total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and chlorophyll a
    C. Dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll a, and water clarity
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. A watershed approach to assessment and management of pollution sources is:
    A. Total Maximum Daily Load
    B. Sustainable Agriculture Credit
    C. Cap and Trade Program
    D. Non-point Pollutant Assessment Program
    E. Community Based Cooperative Agreement
    A. Total Maximum Daily Load
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. Nonpersistent pollutants – 2 general categories
    • Biodegradable
    • Decompose due to inorganic chemical or physical reactions
  21. Biodegradable pollutants
    changed to non-toxic form by an organism (usually decomposers such as bacteria or fungi)
  22. Decomposition due to inorganic chemical or physical reactions:
    • Sunlight/UV radiation
    • Chemical oxidation
    • Reaction with water
    • Reaction with atmosphere
  23. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethan (DDT)
    • Highly effective pesticide
    • Persistent organic pollutant
    • Low solubility in water
    • Highly lipophilic - accumulates in fat
    • Bioaccumulates and biomagnifies in food webs
  24. DDT world use
    • first used in WWII for malaria, after the war for agricultural pests
    • banned in most western countries
    • usage in the world today is roughly the same as it was prior to the ban by most of the Western countries
  25. DDT – Health effects
    • chemically similar enough to estrogens to trigger hormonal responses in animals
    • exposure occurs from inhalation, skin contact and ingestion of contaminated food
    • can cross the placenta
    • associated with increased risk of breast cancer
  26. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)
    • no natural sources
    • Used as coolants and lubricants in electrical equipment
    • Environmentally stable
    • Accumulate in sediments and animal tissues
    • Manufacture in U.S. banned in 1977
  27. PCBs – Health effects
    • humans at risk of exposure through air, water, food
    • possible carcinogen
    • Developmental effects
    • Reproductive effects
    • Neurobehavioral effects
    • Acne-like skin conditions
    • Immune system disorders
  28. Endocrine Active Compounds (EACs)
    • can disrupt animal reproduction and development
    • biogenic hormones created in the body
    • synthetic hormones (such as those manufactured for birth control or menopausal supplement)
    • industrial/commercial compounds which can have some hormonal function (such as alkylphenols, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, and phthalates)
  29. Sources of EACs
    • Many fossil fuel-derived plastics in use
    • Pesticides
    • Pharmaceuticals
  30. EACs and Human Health
    • Can cause problems at extremely low doses
    • Can cause irreversible, lifetime disorders
    • May contribute to increased prevalence of many human disorders
  31. Atrazine
    • Crop protection: Corn, sorghum, sugar cane, turf
    • Potential human health risk (endocrine disruptor)
    • Regularly found in ground and drinking water, as well as in sea water and the ice of remote areas
    • One of the world’s most heavily applied herbicides
    • European Union (EU) banned in 2003
  32. Bisphenol A (BPA)
    • Present in many hard plastic bottles and metal-based food and beverage cans since the 1960s
    • Recently recognized as a potential health hazard
    • doesn’t readily biodegrade
    • known to have leaching capabilities (leaches from plastic drinking bottles)
  33. Image Upload
    Bisphenol A (BPA)
  34. BPA in Mice (2)
    • feminized behaviors in adult males exposed during development
    • low-level, chronic exposure induces insulin resistance in adults. experimental link bet
  35. Image Upload
    • Triclosan
    • antibacterial properties
  36. Triclosan can be found in:
    detergents, dish-washing liquids, soapsdeodorants, cosmetics, lotionsanti-microbial creamsToothpastesvarious plastics and textileshousehold items like toys, mattresses, toilet fixtures, clothing, furniture fabric, and paints
  37. Triclosan Health Risks
    • similar structure to dioxins and PCBs
    • EPA gives triclosan high scores both as a human health risk and as an environmental risk, but human health effects not yet demonstrated
    • expected to be immobile in soil, water
  38. Hg human health effects
    • Methylmercury most toxic, though not linked to cancer
    • For fetuses, infants, and children, the primary health effect of methylmercury is impaired neurological development
    • Impairment of peripheral vision
    • “pins and needles” sensation in hands, feet, mouth area
    • Impairment of speech, hearing, walking, and muscle weakness
  39. Hg in aquatic food webs
    • In water, greater Hg mobility is associated with lower pH and high DOC, thus making it more likely to enter the food chain
    • MeHg in bacteria is consumed directly in sediments to enter food web, or released as MeHg and adsorbed onto phytoplankton, which then enter the food web.
  40. Hg control in environment
    EPA Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR  - 2005) focuses on cap-and-trade program project to reduce Hg emissions from power plants by 70% by 2025
  41. Toxicity of Metals
    Many metals inhibit microbial decomposition processes – litter decomposition, methanogenesis, acidogenesis, nitrogen transformations, biomass generation, and general enzymatic activity
  42. Examples of non-persistent pollutants that decompose due to inorganic chemical or physical reactions
    • Carbon monoxide 
    • ammonia
  43. Examples of Biodegradable Non-persistent Pollutants
    • Organophosphates
    • pesticides
  44. Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL)
    Maximum pollutant load to a waterbody that still meets water quality standards
  45. Allocation of maximum load (3)
    • Point sources (PS)
    • Non-point sources (NPS)
    • Margin of safety (MOS)
  46. Point sources (PS)
    • Single identifiable localized source
    • Enters in a well-defined conveyance, such as a discharge pipe or channel
    • All point sources are under regulatory control and must operate under a discharge permit
  47. Non-point sources (NPS)
    • Enters from a diffuse source, such as runoff or atmospheric deposition
    • Little regulatory control over non-point sources
  48. Image Upload
    Sum of all waste load allocations to point sources
  49. Image Upload
    Sum of all waste load allocations to nonpoint sources
  50. Image Upload
    Waste load allocation + Load allocations + Margin of Safety
  51. Image Upload
    Margin of Safety
  52. Examples of Point Sources
    • Stormwater runoff from large urban areas
    • Runoff from Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs)
    • (In some rare cases) Agricultural runoff from commercial nurseries
  53. Steps in the TMDL Process (5)
    • Define water quality objectives
    • Relate pollution load to objectives
    • Estimate existing pollution sources
    • Evaluate/select control alternatives
    • Allocate total pollution load among sources
  54. Water Quality Standards
    • Numeric: Quantitative definition of the permissible level of a specific pollutant
    • Qualitative descriptions of the conditions of the water body
  55. Watershed models
    • Compute export of water and pollutants from the land surface (and ground water) to the receiving water body
    • Computes freshwater inflows and loads of nitrogen, phosphorus and sediment to bay
  56. Non-point sources: Best Management Practices (BMPs)
    • Site-specific
    • Storm-specific
    • Maintenance-specific
  57. Point sources: Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs)
    generally well-developed and have known degrees of effectiveness
  58. TMDL Pitfalls and Uncertainties
    • No numeric water quality standards exist for nuisance plant growth
    • Insufficient data to develop reliable models
    • Difficult to monitor existing loads
    • Lack of knowledge on effectiveness of BMPs for non-point sources
    • Non-technical issues: Margin of safety, Cost-effectiveness, Social, Political issues
  59. North Buffalo Creek “Impaired” Waters
    • Not safe for recreation
    • Fecal coliform standard exceeded
    • Recreational users at elevated risk of contracting water borne diseases, Typhoid fever, viral and bacterial gastroenteritis, hepatitis A
    • Not supporting aquatic life (biological impairment)
  60. Buffalo Creek Loads from Non-point Sources
    • Pets
    • Sanitary sewer exfiltration (leaks)
    • Sewer system overflows (SSOs)
    • Septic systems
    • Wildlife
    • Unidentified, non-stormwater related sources(a.k.a. dry weather flow sources, illicit connections)
    • Unidentified, stormwater related sources
  61. Delivered Fecal Coliform Load Dry Weather Conditions
    • sanitary sewers: leak more during dry weather; water table lower than pipe, stuff leaks out
    • pets, other sources, waterfowl not active under dry weather conditions
  62. Delivered Fecal Coliform Load All Weather Conditions
    pet fecal matter greatest contribution
  63. All Weather Conditions
    • fecal coliform concentrations higher and exceed standards
    • storm water sources dominate: dogs, cats, wildlife
    • lower human health risk
    • controls require increased awareness and changes in behavior of pet owners
  64. Dry Weather Conditions
    • fecal coliform concentrations lower, but still exceed standards
    • human sources dominate: exfiltrating sanitary sewers, sanitary sewer overflows
    • higher human health risk
    • controls require repairs, and better operation and maintenance of sanitary sewer system
  65. Chesapeake Bay Health Concerns
    • water quality goals not being met
    • critical habitats and food webs below goals
    • fish and shellfish populations below desired level
    • impaired by low dissolved oxygen
  66. Bay Grasses in the Chesapeake Bay
    • improved since 1984, but has only met 46% restoration goal
    • habitat for fish, crabs
    • needs clear water to allow enough light to grow
  67. Poor water clarity due to
    • Algae
    • sediment
  68. Airshed Model
    Computes nitrate and ammonia deposition
  69. Estuary Model (Water Quality Model)
    Computes physical, chemical and biological variables
  70. Urban BMP
    • Forest buffers on un-buffered stream miles
    • Forest conservation on pervious growth
    • All urban areas retrofitted with stormwater management
    • Nutrient management on all pervious land
  71. Septic BMP
    Denitrification retrofits and regular maintenance of all septic systems
  72. Agricultural Best Management Practices (BMPs)
    • Conservation tillage
    • Forest buffers on un-buffered stream miles
    • Wetland restoration
    • Retirement of highly erodible land
    • Nutrient management plan implementation on crops (assumes alternate uses for manure)
    • Soil conservation water quality plans on agricultural lands
    • Fencing on unprotected stream miles
    • Grazing land protection on pastures
    • Control of runoff from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs)
  73. What can the EPA regulate?
    • Point Sources
    • Wastewater treatment plants
    • Discharges from industrial facilities
    • Municipal separate storm sewer systems (MS4s)Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs)
    • EPA does NOT have authority to regulate non-point sources
  74. Which land use practice causes the most greenhouse warming?
    A. Conventional agriculture
    B. Early successional forest
    C. No-till agriculture
    D. Late successional forest
    E. Organic agriculture
    A. Conventional agriculture
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  75. Wet Acid Deoposition
    • Acidic rain, fog, and snow
    • Effects depend on the chemistry and buffering capacity of receiving water and soils, and species that live there.
  76. Dry Acid Deposition
    • Acidic gases and particles; about half of acid deposition.
    • Winds blow dry deposition onto buildings, cars, homes, and trees.
    • Washed from trees and other surfaces by rain, increasing acidity of rain.
  77. Acid Deposition
    • Acids react with certain rocks, such as limestone and marble, dissolving them.
    • Statues lose their features, grave stones become very hard to read, buildings are damaged and may crumble.
  78. Acid Deposition Sources
    • Sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) are the primary causes; comes from electric power plants that burn fossil fuel
    • Gases react in the atmosphere with water, oxygen, and other chemicals to form SO2 and NOx
    • Sunlight increases the rate of most of these reactions.
  79. Acid Damage to Forests
    • Mobilizes soil aluminum - root damage
    • Impairs seed germination,leaches plant micronutrients from soils (cations – eg, Ca++)
    • Direct damage to plants (especially due to acid fog)- erodes waxy coatings on leaves, leaches nutrients from leaves, harms buds
    • Large areas of forest are dead or dying in sensitive areas
    • Estimated cost to forests - $5 billion / year
  80. Acid Damage to Fresh Water Systems
    • Surface waters have lost alkalinity (buffering capacity)
    • Fishes killed – acid mobilizes aluminum from watershed, lake sediments, or stream bed
    • Aluminum irritates fish gills, causing excess mucus production which interferes with O2 uptake – fish suffocate
    • Other organisms damaged at lower pH than fish (crawfish, snails, some insects)
    • Changes in algal and animal species
  81. Acid Damage to Streams
    • Event based – pH drops during rainfall and snowmelt events
    • Kills fish
    • Many stream insects sensitive – changes species
    • Streams drain into lakes, acidifying them
  82. SO2, NOx emmissions are...
  83. Coastal and Oceanic Acidification
    NO3 deposition to estuaries and coastal waters contributes to eutrophication, harmful algal blooms, low O2, fish and shellfish kills
  84. Current Status of Acidification
    • SO2 and NOx emissions are declining, and the allowance bank has declined.
    • Acid deposition has decreasedWater quality and forest recovery have been marginal (and are very region specific).
    • Air quality has not improved measurably
  85. Urban impacts on biodiversity include
    A. Increase in predatory insect diversity, but overall decrease in insect abundance
    B. Decrease in mammal diversity
    C. Overall increase in bird diversity
    D. Loss of generalist insects
    e. All of the above
    B. Decrease in mammal diversity
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  86. An effect of urbanization on groundwater is:
    a. Reduced infiltration due to impervious surfaces
    b. Enhancement of groundwater quality due to reduced withdrawals
    c. Lowering of the water table
    d. All of the above
    e. a and c only
    e. a and c only
  87. Which of the following is important in the epidemiology of a species invasion?
    a. Survival of transport
    b. Survival in new habitat
    c. Proliferation in new habitat
    d. Detrimental effect on native species
    e. All of the above
    e. All of the above
  88. Mechanisms by which invasive species cause harm include:
    a. Local or regional extinctions of native species
    b. Increase in local biodiversity
    c. Alteration of fire regime
    d. All of the above
    e. a and c only
    e. a and c only
  89. Marshes
    wetlands that are frequently or continually inundated with water, characterized by emergent soft-stemmed vegetation adapted to saturated soil conditions.
  90. Nontidal Marshes
    • Occur along streams in poorly drained depressions, and boundaries of lakes, ponds, and rivers.
    • Water levels vary from a few inches to two or three feet.
    • Some periodically dry out completely.
    • Wet meadows
    • Vernal pools
    • Prairie potholes
    • Playa lakes
  91. Prarie Potholes
    those of Canada, Minnesota and the Dakotas were formed by glaciers scraping over the landscape during the Pleistocene
  92. Vernal Pools
    • are seasonal depressional wetlands that occur especially in Mediterranean climate conditions of the West Coast.
    • Covered by shallow water for variable periods from winter to spring; may be completely dry for most of the summer and fall.
  93. Playa Lakes
    • Round hollows in the ground in the Southern High Plains of US.
    • Ephemeral, most  fill with water only after spring rainstorms.  
    • Some are saltwater, filled by groundwater which evaporates to leave salt.
    • Thought to be carved by wind or formed by land subsidence (sinkholes).
  94. Swamp
    any wetland dominated by woody plants
  95. Shrub Swamps
    Mangrove swamps are important tropical coastal ecosystems
  96. Bog
    Characterized by spongy peat deposits, a thick carpet of sphagnum moss, and acidic water
  97. Pocasins
    bogs densely vegetated with trees and shrubs. They are subjected to fire about every 10 to 30 years – Carolina Bay Lakes are pocosins
  98. Fens
    similar to bogs, and also are peatlands, but they are fed by groundwater and are not as acidic as bogs
  99. Mangrove Swamps
    • Habitat for juvenile fishand shellfish-
    • Filter sediment that damages reefs and seagrass beds-
    • Protects coast from storms
Card Set:
2014-12-09 15:54:39

Show Answers: