Chemistry - Midterm Review

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Chemistry - Midterm Review
2014-12-09 19:51:21

Gotta Midterm Review
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  1. hypothesis
    a proposed explanation for what is observed
  2. pure chemistry
    the pursuit of chemical knowledge for its own sake
  3. analytical chemistry
    the field of chemistry that is concerned with the composition of matter
  4. technology
    the means by which a society provides its members with those things needed and desired
  5. biotechnology
    applies science to the production of biological products or processes
  6. microscopic
    describes an object that can be seen only under magnification
  7. independent variable
    • also called manipulative variable.
    • the variable that is changed during an experiment
  8. scientific law
    describes many observations but does not explain them
  9. organic chemistry
    the study of essentially all chemicals containing carbon
  10. chemistry
    the science concerned with the composition of matter and the changes that matter undergoes.
  11. experiment
    a method of testing a hypothesis
  12. observation
    information obtained directly from you senses
  13. scientific method
    a logical approach to the solution of scientific problems
  14. theory
    a well-tested explanation for a broad set of observations
  15. biochemistry
    the field of chemistry that is conceded with the composition of matter
  16. macroscopic
    an object that can be seen with the unaided eye.
  17. solid
    matter with definite shape and volume
  18. gas
    matter that has no definite shape or volume
  19. liquid
    matter that flows but has a definite volume
  20. mass
    amount of matter that an object contains
  21. reactant
    • substance present at the start of a reaction
    • substance formed in a chemical reaction
  22. element
    the simplest form of matter with a unique set of properties
  23. product
    a starting substance in a chemical reaction
  24. compound
    contains two or more elements chemically combined in a fixed proportion
  25. phase
    a part of a sample with a uniform composition and properties
  26. solution
    homogeneous mixture; consists of solutes dissolved in a solvent
  27. physical change
    a change during which some properties of a material change, but the composition of the material  does not change.
  28. conversion factor
    a ratio of equivalent measurements
  29. Celsius scale
    temperature scale on which water freezes at 0 degrees Celsius and boils at 100 degrees Celsius.
  30. scientific notation
    a method of expressing numbers as a product of a coefficient and a power of ten
  31. temperature
    the degree of hotness or coldness of an object
  32. dimensional analysis
    a way to analyze and solve problems, using the units of the measurements.
  33. measurement
    a quantity that has both a number and a unit
  34. meter
    the SI unit of length
  35. error
    the difference between the experimental value and the accepted value
  36. accuracy
    the closeness of a measurement to the true value
  37. precision
    the closeness of a measurement to other measurements
  38. atom
    the smallest particle of an element that retains its identity in a chemical reaction
  39. isotopes
    atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons
  40. atomic number
    the number of protons in the nucleus of an element
  41. mass number
    the total number protons and neutrons
  42. group
    a vertical column of elements in the periodic table
  43. atomic mass unit
    defined as 1/12 the mass of a carbon-12 atom
  44. nucleus
    the central core of an atom, which contains most of the atom's mass

  45. protons
    positively charged subatomic particles
  46. electrons
    negatively charged subatomic particles

  47. periodic table
    an arrangement of elements according to the similarities in their properties

  48. The _________________ is a logical approach to the solution of scientific problems.
    scientific low
  49. Successful scientific outcomes are more likely when scientists collaborate and _____________________________________.
  50. The composition of heterogeneous and homogeneous solution mixtures may ________________________________
    contradict each other.
  51. A sample containing two phases would be a ____________________________ mixture.
  52. If you measure a value that is close to the true value, do your measurements become precise or accurate?
  53. _______________ Atomic Theory stated that atoms of different elements can combine in simple, whole-number ratios.
  54. The total number of protons and neutrons in an atom of Gold-86 is _______________
  55. Physical or Chemical Reaction

    1.  carbon dioxide → carbon + dioxide

    2.  air → oxygen + nitrogen

    3.  salt water → water + sodium chloride
    • 1. chemical
    • 2. chemical
    • 3. physical
  56. Calculate using the dimensional analysis method
  57. Calculate the average atomic mass
  58. Commonly used metric prefixes
  59. What did Democritus contribute to the furthering of science?
    He believed that atoms were indivisible and indestructible.
  60. How is Dalton related to Democritus and what did the contribute to science?
    By using experimental methods, Dalton transformed Democritus's ideas on atoms into a scientific theory.
  61. What did JJ Thomson discover with the use of the Cathode Ray?  How did he do this?