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What is social stratification and how is it determined?
- a layering of social classes
- determined by economic resources, prestige, and power
- cumulative advantage and disadvantage plays a part
How are social classes determined?
- income over the lifetime
Is social class ascribed or achieved?
- ascribed: born into
- achieved: social mobility based on (opportunity structure, actions produced by the individual, and frictional factors/dealing with difficult situations)
Who are more likely disadvantaged?
- single elderly (legal marriage is financial protection)
- minority elderly (rely more on social security)
- elderly female
- oldest old
What is involved in second shift and who is involved in this?
- unemployed women do most of homecare
- employed women second most
- unemployed men third most
- employed men least of homecare
What is the eligibility for social security income based on paid work?
- 35 of 40 working years averaged into social security
- 10 years minimum earning 40 SS credits to receive benefits
What is the eligibility for social security income based on unpaid work?
- spouse benefit (50 percent of worker's benefit)
- survivor benefit (100 percent of worker benefit)
What is the double decker system?
flat benefit to start with and then additional finances based on lifetime income
What are the differences in Pension plans for men vs. women and what is put in place to help with the difference?
- women more likely to get pensionless or low pension jobs
- women have a more disorderly work history
- retirement equity act includes a survivor pension within private pension but only in private pension plans
What is the proportion of minorities in the U.S. age 65+?
- 8.4% african american
- 6.9% hispanic
- 3.5% asian/pacific islander
- less than 1% native american or native alaskan
- .8% of two or more ethnic backgrounds
- (race/ethnic polls are self reported)
How are African American Older Adults in old age?
- largest minority group
- experience cumulative disadvantage
- have health disparities
- have a lower net worth (1/4 of non-hispanic whites)
- role of home ownership comes from (Federal Housing Authority loans facing "redlining", restrictive covenants, and high interest loans)
What is redlining?
red lines drawn on maps around areas of cities where loans were considered risky for economic or racial reasons
What are restrictive covenants?
banning minority groups from white protestant neighborhoods
How are cubans in old age?
- most well off
- political refugees in 1960s
- experience social capital
- have lower fertility
How are puerto ricans in old age?
- no barriers to immigration
- lower education and labor force participation
How are mexicans in old age?
- in-between poverty
- have high fertility (very young population)
How are asian-americans in old age?
- diverse (chinese, japanese, filipino, korean, etc)
- have a 5 year longer life expectancy than average overall
- have lowest rates of poverty
How are native americans in old age?
- diverse (cherokee, navajo, chippewa, lakota)
- highest unemployment
- highest mortality
- lowest education
- indian health service