# CE 3510 Final 2014

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 Author: Anonymous ID: 291173 Filename: CE 3510 Final 2014 Updated: 2014-12-09 19:42:14 Tags: CE 2510 Civil Engineering Materials Folders: Description: CE 2510 Ohio State Autumn 2014 Final Show Answers:

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1. Classifications of Asphalts according to use:
• Roofing
• Protective Coatings
2. Paving (Road Construction) Asphalts are produced primarily by:
the vacuum and steam refining and solvent de-asphalting process.
3. Petroleum Asphalts include:
asphalt cements, cutback asphalts, emulsified asphalts, and air-blown aspahlts
4. Emulsified Asphalts
the suspension of small globules of one liquid into another without intermixing
5. Asphalt properties include:
Adhesion, consistency, specific gravity, durability, rate of curing, ductility, aging & hardening, resistance to reaction of water
6. Viscosity
The measure of the resistance to flow
7. Newtonian Liquids
Independent of stress
8. Non-Newtonian Liquids
Dependent of stress
9. Absolute Viscosity Equation
10. Poise Units
= flow time x viscometer calibration factor
11. Kinematic Velocity
represents a method of measuring viscosity using stoke as the basic measuring unit. It is a measure if the resistance to flow under gravity.
12. Kinematic Viscosity Equation
=
13. Ductility
• Measures the cement's ability to deform without breaking.
• Tensile property of the cement.
• The distance the specimen stretches before breaking.
14. Sliding Plate Viscometer Viscosity equation:
\
15. Poise
The tangential force of 1 dyne acting on plane of area 1 squared cm separated by a 1 cm thickness
16. Materials become _____ or of ______ viscosity as their temperature increases.
• softer
• lower
17. Materials become ________ or of ________ viscosity as their temperature falls.
• harder
• highrt
18. Stiffness Modulus
• E: Instantaneous Elasticity
• eta: viscosity
• D: Delayed elasticity
19. Relation between Stiffness Modulus and Shear Modulus (G)
Stiffness Modulus = 3 x Shear Modulus
20. Thixotropy
A property rendering fairly stiffer material like a fluid when vibrated or agitated.
21. Softening Point
Temperature at which the binder becomes soft.
22. For most binders the Instantaneous Elasticity is equal to: _______
eta depends on: ________
Delayed Elasticity depends on ________
• 27
• temperature
• time and temoerature
23. Specific Gravity
[Mass of a given volume of material at 77F (25C) or at 60F] / [equal volume of water at the same temperature]
24. Specific Gravity is normally measured using a:
pycnometer
25. Specific Gravity Range for Petroleum Asphalts:
0.95 - 1.05
26. Desired Properties of Hot Mix Asphalts
• 1. Stability or resistance to permanent deformation
• 2. Fatigue resistance
• 3. Resistance to thermal cracking
• 4. Resistance to aging and hardening
• 5. Resistance to moisture induced damaging
• 6. Skid resistance
• 7. Work-ability during mixing, placing, and compaction
27. HMA Stability
related to strength and refers to the ability of a pavement to resist deformation under loads
28. HMA Stability Depends on:
29. For maximum HMA Stability:
30. HMA Stability is reduced if:
31. HMA Durability
Resistance of the pavement to disintegration under traffic loads, or pavement remains smooth and serviceable during summer heat, crack free during cold, and resist the forces of freezing and thawing.
32. For maximum HMA Durability
33. For maximizing HMA Durability
34. HMA Flexibility
the ability of a pavement to withstand deflections and bending without cracking
35. To maximize HMA Flexibility
36. HMA Skid Resistance is a form of:
Stability
37. HMA Skid Resistance Causes
• Pavement Bleeding
• Aggregate Polishing
38. Pavement Bleeding
39. Aggregate Polishing
40. Characterization of Asphalt Concretes
Non-linear visco-elastic, visco-elatoplastic materials which respond to dynamic loads due to traffic.
41. Asphalt Concretes will normally fail due to sudden collapse but due to:
• rutting
• fatigue cracking
• bleeding or flushing
• raveling
• stripping
• thermal cracking
42. Rutting
accumulation of permanent deformation in the wheel path
43. Fatigue Cracking
cracking due to repeated bending of the asphalt concrete layer
44. Bleeding or Flushing
Migration of binder at the surface
45. Raveling
loss of flexibility due to aging and oxidation
46. Stripping
loss of bond between the cement and aggregates due to moisture
47. Thermal Cracking
freeze thaw cycle
• Allow the mix design to be varied to suit different conditions fairly easily.
• Allow materials to be used which might otherwise be regarded as below standard.
• It is possible to estimate the effect of materials which are not quite up to specs.
• The tests can often be used as control tests as well as for design purposes.
• The tests are not generally applicable to all mixes.
• Lab equipment is more elaborate and more highly skilled personnel are required.
• The reproducibility of the results is no better than for conventional analysis methods.
• The test temperatures for many performance tests are on the high side.

Maximum Stability: ________
Maximum Flow: ________
Voids in Mix: ________
• Maximum Stability: 4.5 kN
• Maximum Flow: 0.4 mm
• Voids in Mix: 3 to 5%
51. The three major types of asphalt products used for pavements include:
• Asphalt Cements
• Asphalt Cutbacks
• Asphalt Emulsions
52. Asphalt Cements Properties
• At room temp it is a semi-solid
• Needs heating before application
• Hydrocarbons of different molecular weights
• Heavy molecular weights -> harder + more viscous
• Most common binders in pavements
53. Asphalt Cutbacks Properties
• Asphalt Cement -> dissolve in lighter weight hydrocarbons solvents
• When sprayed on a pavement or mixed with aggregates -> the solvent evaporates, leaving the asphalt residue behind as the binder.
• Expensive due to high cost solvents
• Hazardous due to evaporation of solvents and air pollution
55. Asphalt Emulsions Properties
• Dispersing asphalt in water as emulsion
• Asphalt cement broken down into micron-sized globules.
• Emulsion mixed with aggregates, the water evaporates, allowing the asphalt globs to come together to form binder
56. Paving Applications of Asphalt

Hot-mix Asphalt Concrete
Surfacing pavement, patching
57. Paving Applications of Asphalt

Cold-mix Asphalt Concrete
Patching, surfacing low-volume road, asphalt-stabilized base
58. Paving Applications of Asphalt

Fog Seal
Sealing existing pavement surface
59. Paving Applications of Asphalt

Prime Coat
Construction of flexible pavement
60. Paving Applications of Asphalt

Tack Coat
Construction of new pavements or between an existing pavement and an overlay.
61. Paving Applications of Asphalt

Chip Seal
Maintenance of existing pavement or low-volume road surfaces.
62. Paving Applications of Asphalt

Slurry Seal
63. Paving Applications of Asphalt

Microsurfacing
Texturing, sealing, crack filling, rut filling, and minor leveling
64. Classification of Asphalt Binders Methods of Classification
• High pavement temps up to 25C
• Design low temperature warmer than -28C, which is calculated at the pavement surface
Based on absolute viscosity of asphalt after it has been conditioned to simulate the effects of aging that occurs when the asphalt cement is heated.
67. Types of Asphalt Cutbacks
• Rapid-Curing Cutbacks
• Medium-Curing Cutbacks
• Slow-Curing Cutbacks
68. Rapid-Curing Cutbacks
Volatile solvent, such as gasoline, hard residue, cure time is between 5 to 10 min.
69. Medium-Curing Cutbacks
Medium hardness residue, solvent like kerosene cure time is a few days
70. Slow-Curing Cutbacks
Soft residue, non-volatile or low-volatile fuel oil
71. Three Types of Asphalt Emulsions
• Rapid-Setting: 5 to 10 min
• Medium-Setting: several hrs
• Slow-Setting: few months

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