CE 3510 Final 2014

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CE 3510 Final 2014
2014-12-09 19:42:14
CE 2510 Civil Engineering Materials

CE 2510 Ohio State Autumn 2014 Final
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  1. Classifications of Asphalts according to use:
    • Paving (Road Construction)
    • Roofing
    • Protective Coatings
  2. Paving (Road Construction) Asphalts are produced primarily by:
    the vacuum and steam refining and solvent de-asphalting process.
  3. Petroleum Asphalts include:
    asphalt cements, cutback asphalts, emulsified asphalts, and air-blown aspahlts
  4. Emulsified Asphalts
    the suspension of small globules of one liquid into another without intermixing
  5. Asphalt properties include:
    Adhesion, consistency, specific gravity, durability, rate of curing, ductility, aging & hardening, resistance to reaction of water
  6. Viscosity
    The measure of the resistance to flow
  7. Newtonian Liquids
    Independent of stress
  8. Non-Newtonian Liquids
    Dependent of stress
  9. Absolute Viscosity Equation
  10. Poise Units
    = flow time x viscometer calibration factor
  11. Kinematic Velocity
    represents a method of measuring viscosity using stoke as the basic measuring unit. It is a measure if the resistance to flow under gravity.
  12. Kinematic Viscosity Equation
  13. Ductility
    • Measures the cement's ability to deform without breaking.
    • Tensile property of the cement.
    • The distance the specimen stretches before breaking.
  14. Sliding Plate Viscometer Viscosity equation:
  15. Poise
    The tangential force of 1 dyne acting on plane of area 1 squared cm separated by a 1 cm thickness
  16. Materials become _____ or of ______ viscosity as their temperature increases.
    • softer 
    • lower
  17. Materials become ________ or of ________ viscosity as their temperature falls.
    • harder
    • highrt
  18. Stiffness Modulus
    • E: Instantaneous Elasticity
    • eta: viscosity
    • D: Delayed elasticity
  19. Relation between Stiffness Modulus and Shear Modulus (G)
    Stiffness Modulus = 3 x Shear Modulus
  20. Thixotropy
    A property rendering fairly stiffer material like a fluid when vibrated or agitated.
  21. Softening Point
    Temperature at which the binder becomes soft.
  22. For most binders the Instantaneous Elasticity is equal to: _______
    eta depends on: ________
    Delayed Elasticity depends on ________
    • 27
    • temperature
    • time and temoerature
  23. Specific Gravity
    [Mass of a given volume of material at 77F (25C) or at 60F] / [equal volume of water at the same temperature]
  24. Specific Gravity is normally measured using a:
  25. Specific Gravity Range for Petroleum Asphalts:
    0.95 - 1.05
  26. Desired Properties of Hot Mix Asphalts
    • 1. Stability or resistance to permanent deformation
    • 2. Fatigue resistance
    • 3. Resistance to thermal cracking
    • 4. Resistance to aging and hardening
    • 5. Resistance to moisture induced damaging
    • 6. Skid resistance
    • 7. Work-ability during mixing, placing, and compaction
  27. HMA Stability
    related to strength and refers to the ability of a pavement to resist deformation under loads
  28. HMA Stability Depends on:
  29. For maximum HMA Stability:
  30. HMA Stability is reduced if:
  31. HMA Durability
    Resistance of the pavement to disintegration under traffic loads, or pavement remains smooth and serviceable during summer heat, crack free during cold, and resist the forces of freezing and thawing.
  32. For maximum HMA Durability
  33. For maximizing HMA Durability
  34. HMA Flexibility
    the ability of a pavement to withstand deflections and bending without cracking
  35. To maximize HMA Flexibility
  36. HMA Skid Resistance is a form of:
  37. HMA Skid Resistance Causes
    • Pavement Bleeding
    • Aggregate Polishing
  38. Pavement Bleeding
  39. Aggregate Polishing
  40. Characterization of Asphalt Concretes
    Non-linear visco-elastic, visco-elatoplastic materials which respond to dynamic loads due to traffic.
  41. Asphalt Concretes will normally fail due to sudden collapse but due to:
    • rutting
    • fatigue cracking
    • bleeding or flushing
    • raveling
    • stripping
    • thermal cracking
  42. Rutting
    accumulation of permanent deformation in the wheel path
  43. Fatigue Cracking
    cracking due to repeated bending of the asphalt concrete layer
  44. Bleeding or Flushing
    Migration of binder at the surface
  45. Raveling
    loss of flexibility due to aging and oxidation
  46. Stripping
    loss of bond between the cement and aggregates due to moisture
  47. Thermal Cracking
    freeze thaw cycle
  48. Advantages to Testing HMA
    • Allow the mix design to be varied to suit different conditions fairly easily.
    • Allow materials to be used which might otherwise be regarded as below standard.
    • It is possible to estimate the effect of materials which are not quite up to specs.
    • The tests can often be used as control tests as well as for design purposes.
  49. Disadvantages to Testing HMA
    • The tests are not generally applicable to all mixes.
    • Lab equipment is more elaborate and more highly skilled personnel are required.
    • The reproducibility of the results is no better than for conventional analysis methods.
    • The test temperatures for many performance tests are on the high side.
  50. Stats for Major Roads

    Maximum Stability: ________
    Maximum Flow: ________
    Voids in Mix: ________
    • Maximum Stability: 4.5 kN
    • Maximum Flow: 0.4 mm
    • Voids in Mix: 3 to 5%
  51. The three major types of asphalt products used for pavements include:
    • Asphalt Cements
    • Asphalt Cutbacks
    • Asphalt Emulsions
  52. Asphalt Cements Properties
    • At room temp it is a semi-solid
    • Needs heating before application
    • Hydrocarbons of different molecular weights
    • Heavy molecular weights -> harder + more viscous
    • Excellent adhesive properties
    • Most common binders in pavements
  53. Asphalt Cutbacks Properties
    • Asphalt Cement -> dissolve in lighter weight hydrocarbons solvents
    • When sprayed on a pavement or mixed with aggregates -> the solvent evaporates, leaving the asphalt residue behind as the binder.
  54. Asphalt Cements Disadvantages
    • Expensive due to high cost solvents
    • Hazardous due to evaporation of solvents and air pollution
  55. Asphalt Emulsions Properties
    • Dispersing asphalt in water as emulsion
    • Asphalt cement broken down into micron-sized globules.
    • Emulsion mixed with aggregates, the water evaporates, allowing the asphalt globs to come together to form binder
  56. Paving Applications of Asphalt

    Hot-mix Asphalt Concrete
    Surfacing pavement, patching
  57. Paving Applications of Asphalt

    Cold-mix Asphalt Concrete
    Patching, surfacing low-volume road, asphalt-stabilized base
  58. Paving Applications of Asphalt

    Fog Seal
    Sealing existing pavement surface
  59. Paving Applications of Asphalt

    Prime Coat
    Construction of flexible pavement
  60. Paving Applications of Asphalt

    Tack Coat
    Construction of new pavements or between an existing pavement and an overlay.
  61. Paving Applications of Asphalt

    Chip Seal
    Maintenance of existing pavement or low-volume road surfaces.
  62. Paving Applications of Asphalt

    Slurry Seal
    Resurfacing low-volume roads
  63. Paving Applications of Asphalt

    Texturing, sealing, crack filling, rut filling, and minor leveling
  64. Classification of Asphalt Binders Methods of Classification
    • Performance Grading
    • Penetration Grading (Viscosity Grading System)
    • Aged-Residue Grading
  65. Performance Grading
    • High pavement temps up to 25C
    • Design low temperature warmer than -28C, which is calculated at the pavement surface
  66. Aged-Residue Grading
    Based on absolute viscosity of asphalt after it has been conditioned to simulate the effects of aging that occurs when the asphalt cement is heated.
  67. Types of Asphalt Cutbacks
    • Rapid-Curing Cutbacks
    • Medium-Curing Cutbacks
    • Slow-Curing Cutbacks
  68. Rapid-Curing Cutbacks
    Volatile solvent, such as gasoline, hard residue, cure time is between 5 to 10 min.
  69. Medium-Curing Cutbacks
    Medium hardness residue, solvent like kerosene cure time is a few days
  70. Slow-Curing Cutbacks
    Soft residue, non-volatile or low-volatile fuel oil
  71. Three Types of Asphalt Emulsions
    • Rapid-Setting: 5 to 10 min
    • Medium-Setting: several hrs
    • Slow-Setting: few months