Exam 4

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Exam 4
2014-12-09 20:15:32
exam physiology

exam 4 study guide
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  1. During cellular respiration, molecular oxygen’s function is to:
    Provide oxygen to act as an electron and hydrogen acceptor during electron transport 
  2. Which of the following molecules, released by the kidneys, stimulates the production of erythrocytes when the rbc  count is to low: 
  3. Resting exhalation is predominantly the effect of which of the following: 
    elasticity of the connective tissue surrounding the alveoli
  4. The release of renin from the kidney cells would result in which of the following: 
    Formation of angiotensin I from angiotensinogen 
  5. The balance between the osmotic pressures between the glomerulus and Bowman’s capsule is known as the: 
    Oncotic pressure 
  6. Which of the following bile components is responsible for emulsifying lipids in the inter… chime:
      Cholic acid, Chenodeoxycholic acid 
  7. One of the reasons why the medulla of the kidney is so hypertonic is that sodium chloride is pumped from the ascending loop of Henle into the interstitial fluid of the kidney medulla. This sodium chloride helps contribute to the osmosis of water from the loop of Henle which finally enters the vasa recta and returns to the body. 
  8. One would most likely find renal corpuscles in which of the following locations: 
    Renal cortex
  9. Monitoring of the filtrate flow through the distal convoluted tubule and, when that flow is excessive, releasing paracrines to alter the radius of the afferent arteriole is a function of which of the following:
    Macula Densa 
  10. Most ATP produced during cellular respiration is produced as a result of: 
    Oxidative phosphorylation
  11. The function of bile is to digest lipids, specifically triglycerides.
  12. Which of the following are pancreatic proteases: 
    Carboxypeptidase, elastase, trypsin 
  13.  Deamination of an amino acid in the liver would result in the eventual production of a molecule used to transfer the amino group to the kidneys via the bloodstream; this molecule is known as: 
  14. The sum (balance) of all the oncotic and filtration pressures that affects the volume of blood plasma that is filtered from the glomerulus into Bowman’s capsule is known as the:
    Net filtration pressure
  15.  Movement of plasma from the glomerulus into Bowman’s capsule is facilitated by the fact that the glomerular capillaries are: 
    Fenestrated capillaries 
  16. As strange as it may seem, urea (a waste product from the deamination of amino acids) is circulated within a countercurrent loop between the collecting duct and the ascending loop of Henle in a manner that helps to increase the osmolarity within the interstitial fluid of the kidney medulla . This high osmolarity (hypertonicity) of the medulla is important in the concentration of urine. 
  17. Excessive retention of carbon dioside in the blood plasma as a result of pulmonary dysfunction would result in:
    Respiratory acidosis 
  18. Paracrines released by macula densa cells would likely do which of the following: 
    Decrease the radius of the afferent arteriole 
  19. One response to hyperkalemia would be the release of aldosterone from the adrenal gland which causes countertransport of potassium ions and sodium ions through the wall of the DCT and collecting duct. 
  20. The purpose of the chloride shift is: 
    To prevent buildup of charge within the erythrocyte 
  21.  Lactase and enterokinase are examples of an enzymes attached to the cell membranes of microvilli in the small intestines; these and other such attached enzyme are known as: 
    Brush border enzymes 
  22. Which of the following is responsible for activating trypsinogen released from the pancreatic acinar cells: 
  23.  Which of the following are considered surfactants: 
    Phosphatidyl glyceron, phosphatidyl choline, and hydrophobic proteins 
  24. A reduction in the PH of the bloodstream wo uld likely have which of the following effects: 
    • Shift the oxyhemoglobin (oxygen-hemoglobin) dissociation curve to the right
  25. Which of the following is a function of erythropoietin: 
    • Stimulation of rbc production in the bone marrow
  26. Which of the following forces opposes filtration in the renal corpuscle: 
    • Capsular hydrostatic pressure, and blood colloid osmotic pressure
  27.  Which of the following are involved in the monitoring of blood osmolarity and in times of dehydration releasing a hormone that stimulates the placement of aquaporins into the membranes of cells of the DCT so that the body can make highly hypertonic urine. 
    Hypothalamus, and neurohypophysis 
  28. Water reabsorption within the kidney nephron occurs by: 
    Osmosis alone
  29. Which of the following is the function of secretin:
    Stimulation of bicarbonate production of the pancreas, and stimulating release of bicarbonate from brunner’s glands
  30. Aquaporins make it possible to concentrate urine by allowing for the diffusion of water from (out of) the collecting duct into the renal medulla where the environment is very hypotonic. 
  31. The primary function of aldosterone is to respond to hyperkalemia by stimulating the secretion of postassium ions from peritubular capillaries into the DCT or collecting duct of the nephron. 
  32. Which of the following produces histamine which subsequently stimulates parietal cells to release hydrogen ions into the stomach lumen: 
    ECL cells 
  33. The inability to produce ADH during times of dehydration and therefore the inability to produce concentrated urine is known as: 
    Diabetes insipidus 
  34. The Primary pressure that causes filtration from the glomerulus into Bowman’s capsule is the Blood (glomerular) colloid osmotic pressure.
  35. Digestion of proteins would result in the release of: 
    Amino acids 
  36.  Reabsorption of most nutrients, much water and electrolytes occurs through the wall of which of the following: 
    Proximal convoluted tubule 
  37. The Law of Laplace predicts that air in n alveolus of greater radius would move into a connected alveolus of smaller diameter due to the increased pressure in the larger alveolus. 
  38. Which of the following occurs during internal respiration:
    • Carbon dioxide released from tissue cells enters the erythrocytes of passing blood and reacts with water to form carbonic acid.
    • Bicarbonate exits the erythrocyte and enter the blood plasma
    • Oxyhemoglobin dissociates and release oxygen which subsequently diffuses into the tissue cells
  39.   Which of the following is associated with permicious anemia: 
    Lack of intrinsic factor produced by the parietal cells of the gastric mucosa and vitamin B12 deficiency
  40.  To overcome the collapse of alveoli predicted by the Law of Laplace, which of the following owul need to be produced by alveolar type II cells in the lungs: 
  41. A typical net filtration pressure at the renal corpuscle would near 50 mmHg. 
  42. During external respiration, oxygen diffuses from the alveolus into the blood plasma and subsequently into the erythrocyte. In the erythrocyte it attaches to the iron in hemoglobin to form a molecule known as:
  43.  According to Boyle’s law, inhalation is a result of a decreasd pressure in the pleural cavities (and therefore within the alveoli) created by an increase in the volume of the pleural cavities. 
  44. 1.       Pepsinogen in the stomach is activated by which of the following: 
    Low PH in the gastric lumen 
  45. Which of the following is not a normal constituent of urine: 
  46. Which of the following hormones is responsible for stimulating the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus in a manner that creates a sense of hunger: 
  47. The release of oxygen from the hemoglobin as a result of the presence of the hydrogen ions released from carbonic acid is referred to as: 
    The Bohr effect
  48. The mechanisms by which hydrogen ions and potassium ions are secreted into the DCT is known as: 
    Active secretion 
  49.  When oxygenated blood enters tissue capillaries, the relase of oxygen  from the hemoglobin is at least in part stimulated by the release of carbon dioxide from the tissue cells. 
  50. Which of the following is not a function of the respiratory system in the human body: 
    Elimination of urea
  51. The ability of the kidneys to maintain a relatively constant net filration pressure (and glomerular filtration rate) in the face of fluctuating blood pressures is known as: 
  52. Decreased levels of proteins in the bloodstream would most likely result in which of the following: 
    Increased net filtration pressure in the renal corpuscle 
  53. During internal respiration, which of the following is responsible for much of the release of oxygen from hemoglobin: 
    The attachment of hydrogen ions to oxyhemoglobin 
  54. The absence of most proteins in the ultrafiltrate is primarily a result of which of the following: 
    Electrostatic repulsion of these proteins by the lamina densa  (basal lamina) between the capillary endothelium and podocytes
  55. Which of the following metabolic wastes moves from the DCT through the interstitial fluid into the ascending loop of Henle and which contributes to the hypertonicity of the interstitial fluid of the kidney medulla : 
  56. Certainly one of the primary purposes of the vasa recta is to : 
    Maintain the hypertonicity of the medullary interstitial fluid  
  57. Antidiuretic hormone exerts its effect by which of the following mechanisms: 
    Increasing the number of water channels (aquaporins) in the collecting duct
  58. Which of the following are functions of cholecystokinin
    Stimulating the gall bladder to release bile into the duodenum and stimulating the pancreas to release digestive juices. 
  59. Adrenergic stimulation gastric gland cells would result in the secretion of histamine which in turn would stimulate the secretion of pepsinogen.
  60. Which of the following would stimulate the release of bile from the gal bladder: 
  61. Which of the following is responsible for the hypertonic nature of the interstitial fluid within the medulla of the kidney: 
    • A countercurrent exchange of sodium chloride form the ascending limb of the loop of Henle into the vasa recta
    • Movement of urea from the collecting duct into the ascending tubule
    • Removal of water from the interstitial fluid by the vasa recta
  62. Gastric inhibitory peptide (aka glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide) is released by the duodenum in response to sugar  entering the small intestine and its function is to: 
    Stimulate the pancreas to release insulin 
  63. Aldosterone production by the thyroid gland, stimulated by the release of renin from the kidney juxtaglomerular cells, is responsible for causing the kidneys to reabsorb sodium and water and excrete calcium so as to elevate blood pressure and protect the body from hypercalcemia. 
  64.  The ultimate purpose of cellular respiration is the production of: 
  65. The amount of air that remains in the lungs after a forced exhalation is known as the: 
    Residual volume