strings, oboe, basson, sometimes recorder or transverse flue. Sometimes horn or trumpet, and percussion
What made music baroque?
using music and text to portray a feeling; clearly major and minor; obsessed with harmony
What makes continuo?
bassoon, cello, keyboard instrument
How many moods are portrayed in each Baroque movement?
one emotion. Rhythm is consistent and followed established patterns
What is the group that wanted to create new vocal style based on Greek tragedy?
What did Monteverdi do other than opera?
bridged the gap between the old and new styles
Where was the first public opera house opened?
What were Purcell's most popular works?
Dido and Anneas
What was Purcell's style in opera?
used ground bass, a pattern repeated in the bass throughout the entire piece
What is a Da Capo aria?
ABA form. Had instrumental material between A and B. A is ornamented second time.
What is a general term for keyboard instruments?
What is empfindsam?
constantly changing moods and expression the music
What makes an Italian overture?
Fast, slow, dance
What is a sinfonia?
An instrumental break within the opera
Where did Vivaldi mainly teach?
How many movements did German concertos have? What about non-German?
What is a fugue?
A polyphonic work based on one or more subjects.
What did Back write?
Everything except opera
What did Fux write?
a book on how to write effective counterpoint
What were the schools of opera?
Florentine: tried to revive the art of Greek tragedy
Roman: used choruses extensively and used comic relief within opera
Venetian: followed the Roman school but focused on short, singable melodies
What did Gluck do?
first to put themes in overture to set up the opera
revolutionized opera by getting rid of virtuosity and back to form
What is ballade opera?
A comic opera that mocks a serious opera
Opera Buffa to Italians
Opera Commede to French
What is an oratorio?
operas but no set, no costumes, has voices and instruments
What is oratorio vulgare?
a secular text but still quasi religious
Handel's oratorios are the most important
What are cantatas?
Sacred, small numbers and few instruments. German
What describes the classical period?
back to Greek symmetry and antiquity. Simpler, graceful styles
What is the Rococo?
the sub period in between Baroque and Classical
What did piano do?
led to larger dynamic contrast
What did CPE Bach do?
wrote mainly instrumental music
What did JC Bach do?
"London Bach" wrote mainly piano concertos
Who were the most important somposers of the classical period?
Haydn, Mozart, and early Beethoven
What is the form for minuet and trio?
l:a:l l:ba':l l:c:l l:dc':l
Who was Haydn's patronage?
What did Mozart do?
perfected every type of pre-existing work
What does the Requiem Mass add?
Requiem Aeternam and Dies Irae
What is a divertimento and/or serenade?
divertimento: quieter indoor music for chamber music
seranade: the same but outside and bigger
Who was Gluck?
the great reformer of opera. Represented the spirit of the Classical period. Improved libretto using dramatic truth with real stories. The recitatives and orchestra more important. His overtures are the first to reflect the mood of the opera.