Phil 120

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  1. Passive Euthanasia
    Withholding or withdrawing treatment; conditions kills patients

    Ie. Turning off respirator, not inserting feeding tube ect
  2. Active Euthaniasia
    Using death causing mean to kill patient

    Ie. Administering heart-stopping drugs, giving high doses of opiates
  3. Physician- Assisted suicide
    Physician provides means but patient kills self

    Ie. giving a prescription for pills that cause death, hooking up IV so patient can push button to get lethal dose of drugs
  4. Whole Brain Death
    Permanent loss of all detectable brain function (No brain Waves)

    Needed a new definition of death after we learned to keep heart and lung function
  5. The Groningen Protocol
    Rules for actively euthanizing severely disabled infants
  6. 5 Rules of Groningen Protocol
    • 1) Suffering must be so severe that the newborn has no prospects of a future
    • 2) No possibility of cure or alleviation with medication or surgery
    • 3) Parents must give consent
    • 4) Must have a second opinion from independent doctor who has not been involved with child's treatment 
    • 5) Deliberate ending of life must be meticulously carried out with emphasis on aftercare
  7. Gay- Williams 3 arguments for the wrongfulness of Euthanasia
    • Nature (natural law/Kantian) 
    • Self-interest (Egoism)
    • Practical effects (Utilitarian)
  8. Gay- williams euthanasia argument - Natural Law/ Kantian
    • Humans have a natural inclination to continue living
    • Euthanasia does violence to our natural goal of survival
    • Our dignity comes from seeking our ends 
    • When our goal is survival and actions are taken against that goal, our natural dignity suffers
  9. Gay- williams euthanasia argument - Self Interest (egoism)
    • Death is final, irreversible 
    • Chance of error is too great
    • Mistaken diagnosis 
    • Spontaneous remission
    • Never have a chance to reconsider 
    • Allowing possibility of euthanasia might keep us from surviving
  10. Gay- williams euthanasia argument - Practical effect (utilitarianism)
    • Allowing possibility of euthanasia may have a corrupting influence 
    • In severe cases doctors and nurses may not try as hard to save patient 
    • Might alter attitudes, lead to decline in quality of health care 
    • Slippery slope
  11. Sexual Morality: Conventional View
    Sex within heterosexual marriage only
  12. Sexual Morality: Liberal View
    Sexual activity between informed consenting adults is acceptable
  13. Sexual Morality: Moderate view
    Sexual activity between informed consenting adults acceptable as long as they have a serious emotional connection
  14. "Unnatural sex"
    • Not commonly done by animals 
    • Outside the norm for humans 
    • Using body part for something other than its intended purpose
  15. Sullivan vs Bennett
    Debate on same sex marriage
  16. Sullivan views on sam sex marriage
    • Not seeking special treatment, just equality
    • Same-sex marriage will not change institution of marriage 
    • We changed it before, to allow different races to marry
    • Separation of church and state
  17. Bennett view on same-sex marriage
    • Same-sex marriage will weaken marriage
    • Shatters conventional definition
    • Same as bigamy or incest
    • Fidelity not a value in same-sex marriage
    • Marriage of opposite sex is natural
  18. Personhood might begin at:
    • Conception
    • Implantation
    • Heartbeat
    • Brain waves 
    • Quickening (first movement felt by mom)
    • Viability 
    • Birth 
    • Birth+30 days
  19. If personhood begins at conception:
    • That would rule out:
    • abortion
    • Stem cell research
    • Contraceptive techniques which interfere (IUD)
  20. If personhood begin at implantation:
    • May perform embryonic stem cell research
    • May use contraceptive techniques which prevent implantation after conception
  21. Jarvis Thomsons defense of Abortion
    • Argued that "no person is morally required to make large sacrifices to sustain the life of another"
    • Violinist theory
  22. Stem cells
    • Undifferentiated cells (no particular type of cell yet)
    • No DNA signature until after 8 days (which is why embryonic cells are desirable)
  23. Totipotent
    Means the cell is capable of becoming any kind of cell in the human body
  24. Capitalism
    • Adam Smith, The Wealth of the Nations 
    • Private ownership of means of production and resources 
    • Free market provides a morally just result
  25. Communism
    • Karl Marx, Capital
    • Public (communal) ownership of means of production and resources 
    • From each according to their ability, to each according to their need
  26. Two ways of thinking about economic (distributive) justice
    • Procedural Justice 
    • End-State Justice
  27. Procedural Justice
    If the process by which wealth is attained is just, then any result is fair and just (ex- Free market capitalism)
  28. End-State Justice
    The distribution of wealth must be fair (Communism/Socialism)
  29. Rawls 2 principles of justice
    • 1) each person has a right to the most extensive liberties compatible with similar liberties for all
    • 2) Social and economic inequalities should be arranged so that they are both
    •    a. To the greatest benefit of the least advantaged persons, and 
    •    b. Attached to offices and positions open to all under conditions of equality of opportunity
  30. Clausewitz
    • "War is a continuation of policy by other means"
    • Absolute war
  31. Absolute war
    • War without moral or political constraints 
    • Utmost use of resources Aim is to disarm enemy utmost exertion of powers
  32. Modern codification of Just War principles
    • Geneva convention
    • Hague Convention
    • United Nations Charter
  33. Just war theory
    • Declared by legitimate sovereign authority 
    • Just cause 
    • Rightful intention
    • Last resort 
    • Proportionality
  34. Moral stance of Weapons of mass destruction
    • WMD kill many more civilians than soldiers
    • Not morally right
  35. Terrorism
    • Violence against noncombatants for political, religious, or ideological purpose
    • Violates concept of Just War
  36. Torture
    • Intentional infliction of severe pain or suffering to punish or extract information 
    • Forbidden by Geneva Conventions
  37. Geneva Conventions
    • "Rules of War" (1864)
    • Some war activities are not considered acceptable under GV
    • -No aiming at civilians; combatants must wear uniforms 
    • -No torture 
    • -Treatment of POW's cannot violate their humanity
  38. Pacifism
    • The view that the use of force, including lethal force, is morally objectionable 
    • Nonviolent means work better 
    • Violence does more harm than good 
    • Killing other is wrong in itself
  39. Reason why we punish
    • Deterrence: Prevent people from committing crime 
    • Retribution: Require people to pay for the crime they committed
  40. Van den Haags response to "Death penalty is arbitrarily applied. Poor people, dark people, and those who kill whites are more likely to get death penalty
    • Guilt is personal
    • Equality.. seems morally less important than justice
  41. Van den Haag's response to "Innocent people may be killed in a miscarriage of justice"
    • Nearly all human activities, trucking, construction, lighting ect, const lives of innocent bystanders 
    • Yet, we do not give up these actives because the advantages, moral or material, outweigh the unintended losses
  42. Van den Haag's response to "Death penalty does not deter"
    • "I would favor retention of the death penalty even it it were shown that the threat of execution could not deter prospectives murderers not already deterred by the threat of imprisonment."
    • #niggadontcare
  43. Privatization of Punishment
    • Prisons owned by private companies 
    • Prison guards working in state prisons employed by private companies 
    • Lobbying by companies for laws the produce more profit (such as mandatory minimum sentences) 
    • Motive for punishment becomes profit instead of justice
  44. 8 Principles of Deep Ecology
    • 1) The well-being and flourishing of human and nonhuman life on Earth have value in themselves (intrinsic value, inherent value) These values are independent of the usefulness of the nonhuman world for human purposes
    • 2) Richness and Diversity of life forms contribute to realization of these values and are also values in themselves 
    • 3) Humans have no right to reduce this richness and diversity except to satisfy vital needs
    • 4) Present human interference with the nonhuman world is excessive and the situation is rapidly worsening
    • 5) The flourishing of human life and cultures is compatible with a substantial decrease of the human population. The flourishing of nonhuman life requires such decrease 
    • 6)Policies must therefor be changed. The changes in policies after basic economic, technological, and ideological structures. The resulting state of affairs will be deeply different from the present
    • 7) The ideological change is mainly that of appreciating life quality (dwelling in situations of inherent worth) rather than adhering to an increasingly higher standard of living. There will be a profound awareness of the different between big and great.
    • 8) Those who subscribe to the foregoing points have an obligation directly or indirectly to participate in the attempt to implement the necessary changes
  45. Ecofeminism
    The position that there are important connections (historical, experimental, symbolic, theoretical) between the domination of women and the domination of nature

    Women are closer to nature/ Nature is divine/ Humans are all part of nature
  46. Deep ecologist and ecofeminists agree:
    • These are bad for the planet:
    • Atomism (digital thinking)
    • Dualism (Othering)
    • Hierarchalism
    • Abstract rationalism
  47. Deep ecologist say ____ is hte cause of environmental destruction
    Anthropocentrism (human-centered view)
  48. Ecofeminist say ____ is the cause of environmental destruction
    • Androcentrism (male centered view)
    • Social practices reflecting patriarchal dominance create poverty and environmental degradation
  49. How should we resolve environmental problems? (Deep ecologist vs Ecofeminists)
    Deep Ecologist say we must focus on fixing pollution first, then work on social problems 

    Ecofeminists say we much focus on fixing social problems first (racism, sexism, classism, hierarchy); then environmental problem will be more permanently solved
  50. Speciesism
    A bias towards one's own species
  51. Sentience
    Capacity to fell pleasure and pain
  52. Singers views
    • All animals are equal! (moral idea not a description) 
    • Capacity for suffering is vital characteristic which gives a being the right to equal consideration 
    • Equality mean equal consideration of interests
  53. Singers views
Card Set:
Phil 120
2014-12-10 07:10:10
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