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What were two early problems of two extreme systems of government that the constitution needed to compromise with?
- republics that were too large could eventually be tyrannical
- confederacy were too autonomous and divided, thereby they couldn't rally unification
What was Madison's solution between the two extremes?
Federalism: a system of dual sovereignty where state and federal govt's can coexist as sovereigns within the same space.
How much power did Madison feel that the National gov't had?
- limited set of powers
- "few and defined"
How much power did the state have?
- "numerous and indefinite"
- anything that concerned the "liberties and properties of the people , and the internal order as well as the improvement and prosperity of the States"
What was the most dangerous power of Congress according to Madison and how much power did Congress have over it?
- unlimited spending "Power of the Purse"
- It is stated explicitly in the enumerated powers of the constitution in Art I sect 8.
- Does not incr/decr power to spend
Why did Madison believe in a centralized gov't for the federal level?
- It would be easier to secure national goals while maintaining local autonomy necessary.
- Strong enough national gov't to raise an army, economy
Why did Madison believe in a decentralized gov't in the state level?
- allows citizens greater chance to participate ("political effigy") in democratic process
- representatives will more closely reflect the constituents' interests
How would there be competition in gov't?
state will try to make themselves the most attractive area for investments and businesses in order to gain grants,
What was Hamilton's opinion on Congress' Power of the Purse?
- Congress has a very broad scope on how to spend since it is for the "general welfare" of the public.
- Expands congressional power
What are the perks of federalism?
having multiple layers of gov't allows citizens to be more involved in democratic processes.