intro to theatre

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intro to theatre
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  1. nogaku
    • 14th century
    • No means skill
    • developed by Kan'ami and Zeami
    • influenced by dengaku (ritual) and sarugaku (type of theatre popular during the time.
  2. kan'ami Kiyotsugu
    • 1333-1384
    • actor writer of sarugaku
  3. zeami motokiyo
    • son of kan'ami (1363-1443)
    • wrote the Book of the Flower (asethetics of No, how it is played)
    • refined the art
  4. shite
    main character
  5. waki
    secondary performers
  6. jiutai
    • chorus "earth singers"
    • group of chanters
  7. Hayashikata
    • musicians
    • 2 or 3 percussionists
    • 1 flute
  8. categories of noh plays
    • God
    • Warrior
    • Women
    • Miscellaneous (mad characters)
    • kiri no (final, supernatural demons)
  9. Jo-Ha-Kyu
    • opening (slow), breaking and quickening
    • God plays are Jo
    • Warrior, female and Misc are Ha
    • Kyu (Final)
    • Ha can be further broken down to Jo (Warrior), Ha (Female), Misc (Kyu)
  10. neoclassism
    • human nature is same in all places and at all times (universal traits and behavior)
    • likeness to life (plausible, no fantasy)
    • generalized sets and costumes
    • almost completely reversed by 19th century
  11. Romanticism
    • rejected strictures (can have subplots)
    • individuality, appeal to emotions, passion
    • everything has common origin, part of greater whole-->welcome detail, truth in infinite variety of creations.
    • 1800-1850
    • higher truth beyond earthly existence
    • sets look like outdoors (closer to nature, closer to truth)
    • follow the dictates of own conscience
  12. melodrama
    • musical score used to emphasize emotions of scene
    • suspenseful plot
    • good rewarded, bad punished.
    • characters are stereotyped
    • tableaux (frozen picture of the characters)
    • coincidences, concealed identities
  13. duke george II of saxe-meiningen
    • director of meiningen players
    • ensemble work
    • lavish productions with great historical details
    • crowd scenes (many people on stage) and rehearsals
  14. realism
    • attention to social issues (more people to ponder and change things)
    • stage action (everyday life)
    • complex characters with psychological motivation (why do we do this)
    • no subject matter is inappropriate
    • truth through science (observable), figure out what makes characters tick, subtext (characters don't say everything they feel)
    • -no neatly resolved situations
  15. naturalism
    • emphasis on heredity and environment
    • this affects behavior
    • depict mundane events (no rising or falling action)
  16. dollhouse
    henrik ibsen (1828-1906)
  17. theatre libre
    • 1887 (part of independent theatre movement)
    • set up by andre antoin
    • subscription service
    • combined realism and naturalism, plays that was not censored.
    • eliminate presentational aspects (real food on table, beef hanging)
  18. well made play
    • melodrama can be a well made play but well made play cannot be melodrama
    • -eugene scribe (1791-1861)
    • formula: exposition (bkgr), surprises, suspense/secrets, climax/reversal, resolution (clear, explained)
  19. moscow art theater
    • 1898
    • explored all forms of theater, nothing specific
    • already have real set, but not it's bringing life to stage (actors)
    • public education (invite audience in, lectures, meet playwright)
    • realistic approach to acting (studio next to theatre)
    • lengthy rehearsals, harmonious ensemble, research into historical detail, actors integrated with space, blend of acting and scenic.
  20. symbolism
    • increase emotional experience in viewer (color, line, composition)
    • spirtual value to a work/art should reflect emotion or idea
    • images: mythology, biblical sources, dream worlds, the fantastic
  21. symbolism theatre
    • poetic theatre
    • atomsophere and mood precedence over everything else (candescent light uses gel)
    • -universal themes
    • symbols evoke feelings
    • present mystery of being
    • characters are figures represent something
    • avoided: social problems, recreating physical environment and historical detial
  22. symbolism stage setting
    • scenery (drapery, undefined forms, whatever is appropriate to play)
    • costume (simple, colors determined by mood of play)
  23. theatre d' art
    • 1890-92
    • paul fort (1872-1960)focuses on symbolism
    • scenery is deemphasized (scrim)
    • stylized vocal and physical techniques
    • new plays, poetry, literacy adaptations in plays, mainly single performances
  24. Theatre de l'Oeuvre 1893-99
    • everything was possible
    • obscure goes very far.
    • Alfred Jarry’s nihilistic farce Ubu Roi
    • started by Lugne-Poi
    • He sought to create a theatre of poetry and dreams while staying true to his motto, "The word creates the decor.
    • the acting stylized
  25. futurism
    • filippo sommaso Marinetti 1909 futurist manifesto
    • vaudeville acts, juggling, dances, gymnists
  26. dada performances
    • 1916 (Cabaret Voltaire cafe)
    • anarchistic sound and chance poems
    • theme nights
    • collaborative contributions
    • songs and recitations
    • sound poems (phonetic poetry)
    • simultaneous poems
    • dances, skits, collage
  27. futurist serrata
    • improvised evenings
    • spontaneity/had own version of music, poetry
    • enrage audiences aimed to shake audiences out of complacency
    • mingling of audiences during play
    • multimedia (poetry, kinetic art with movements, noise msuic, sintesi)
  28. sintesi
    short skits of ideas (part of futurist serrata)
  29. author of adding machine
    elmer rice
  30. german expressionism
    • 1912-1925 turmoil within person is expressed outward
    • it is the subject rendering of internal world (everything from their point of view); focus on character reflection of his mindset; truth is found within
    • want to be alienating, doesn't connect, subjective view of protagonist
  31. expressionist techniques
    • message centered around theme
    • episodic (station drama): series of scenes b/c that's how we see our life and our day.
    • search or pilgriumage
    • external appearances are distorted (focus on one character)
    • exaggerated shapes, abnormal use of color
    • speech: short or monologue (what character is thinking)
  32. expressionist staging
    • groupings (mass actions, uniformity)
    • scenes: sequence of events
    • focus on one character=archetypes
    • use of grotesque (things moving beyond their bounds (distorted reality, zigzag stairs)
    • unusual lighting effects
    • movement mechanical
    • mask like makeup
    • costume: minimal, clashing colors
    • mixture of verse and prose
  33. expressionist acting
    • not Stanislavisty: no internal aspects, display abstract, focus on main character.
    • principles: no excessive gesture, use of signals (use finger to point a way to focus)
    • focus (made apparent)
    • exaggeration (economy and focus, larger than life gestures)
  34. first american theater
    williamburg VA
  35. what are early american theatre center
    • chestnut street theatre
    • park theater
    • federal street theater
    • city theatre
  36. american little theatres
    • toy theatre (boston)
    • chicago little theatre (eggy, artsy, shocking)
    • for the weathier crowd
    • moving away from syndicate
  37. synidicate threatre
    • vertical integration: own means of production, how it is where it is the box office (anti-trust laws later)
    • did whatever that made money, no talent forming
    • lawyers were the producers
  38. provincetown players
    • 1915
    • by cram cook and susan glaspell (new american plays only)
    • first legitimate academic course
  39. the experimental theatre
    • eugene o'neil, kenneth macgowan
    • robert edmund Jones (1887-1995): new stage craft in America (creating space for show, theatre magazine (separation between commercial and local theatre)
    • create artitist environment (the Hairy Ape)
  40. theatre guild
    • 1919
    • washington square players (1915-1918): other plays instead of just American ones
    • European model: subscription based
    • 1931 members defect to form group theatre
  41. american laboratory theatre
    • 1923-1933
    • the theatre arts institute (begin of academic institution), physical training in the stanislavisky system, training program of 3 years
  42. african theatre (Ny)
    • 1821
    • william henry brown
    • similar to white playhouses
  43. ira aldridge
    (speacialized in shakespeare)-went to europe highly acclaimed
  44. minstrel show
    • Zip Coon, uran more sophisticated than Jim Crow
    • bases for vaudeville
    • format: vocal numbers/comic chat
    • the olio: special acts (men in blackface), singing a song, balancing plates, etc
    • wrap up with sketch: plantation scenes (foolishness of actors comic/derogatory)
    • blacks use mask too
  45. Thomas Daddy Rice
    • 1806-60
    • created the original jim crow
    • father of american minstrel
    • limitation of blacks just to singing and dancing
  46. The Chip Woman's fortune
    W. richardson, first nonmusical black show on Broadway
  47. Federal Theatre Project
    1950s kept the little theatres going through the war, even through segregation
  48. Greenwich Mews Theatre
    • off Broadway plays
    • things that all audience are able to relate to.
  49. amiri Baraka
    • 1934-2014
    • the slave (first few aa beat writers)
    • the toilet interraical gang discuses who hould be killed (brings up provocative questions)
    • slave ship (added smell)
    • 1960: leader of the black arts movement (theatre as a weapon)
    • helped to open black arts repertoire theatre and school
    • meeting of black power (Newark NJ)
  50. author of bog of cats
    • marina carr
    • plays are filled with greek illusions and has timelessness
  51. author of matsukaze
    • kanami
    • revised Zeami Motokiyo
  52. a doll house
    henrik ibsen
  53. the adding machine author
    elmer rice
  54. dutchman author
    amiri baraka
  55. group theatre
    • harold clurman, lee strasbey, cheryl crawford
    • modeled on the moscow art theatre, ensemble approach, socially relevant drama
    • popularized the Stanislaviski system
    • set standards for realistic writing and performance
  56. fed theatre project in 1935-1939
    • FDR establishes Works Progress Administration
    • supported theatrical ventures t/o US, cities act as host
    • plays, vaudeville, social commentary, free or low fee
    • living newspaper: around current events.
  57. Yukihira
    lover of Matsukaze and Murasame
  58. Matsukaze takes what to be Yukihira
    pine
  59. carthage kilbride
    hester's husband
  60. monica murray
    hester's neighbor
  61. emile zola
    naturalism in the theatre
  62. anti-realism
    expressionism
  63. Kristine Linde
    Nora's friend
  64. Krogstad
    originally the antigonist in the play
  65. howard wagner
    willy's boss
  66. high school football star
    biff
  67. bernard
    smart, but not well liked, charley's son
  68. brother ben
    goes to alaska, found diamond in Africa strikes it rich
  69. bill oliver
    biff's old employer
  70. dave singleman
    legendary salesman

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