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earths outermost layer of rock
small solid fragments of rock and other materials that are carried and deposited by wind, water, or ice. Examples would be sand, mud, or gravel.
rock formed when chemical reactions cement sediments together
rock that forms from molten rock
igneous or sedimentary rock that has been changed into a new kind of rock as a result of great pressure and temperature
rock that behaves like something between a liquid and a solid
vibration of the earth that results either from volcanic activity or rock masses moving along fault
the boundary between two sections of rock that can move relative to another
the point where earthquakes begin
the point on the surface of the earth directly above and earthquakes focus
scientist often separate the earth into five distinct sections. name them
crust, mantle, core, atmoshere, hydrosphere
of the five sections listed in problem 2 which can we observe directly
crust and atmosphere and hydroshpere
what two regions of the earth does the moho discontinuity separate? what about the gutenberg discontinuity? what about the lehmann discontinuity?
- a) the crust and the mantle
- b) the mantle and the core
- d) the outer and the inner core
what is the difference between the ways that igneous rock and sedimentary rock form
igneous is formed from molten rock and sedimentary rock is formed from solid fragments of rock and other materials
Of the 3 types of rock discussed in this module which starts as a diff type of rock?
what is the main thing scientist observe in order to learn about the makeup of the earths interior
which is a solid the inner core or the outer core . why is one solid while the other liquid
- the inner core is solid because of freezing pressure
where is the magnetic field of the earth generated
what causes the magnetic field of the earth
the electrical current in the earths core
give a brief description of the two main theories that attempt to explain the earth's magnetic field
- The dynamo theory says that the motion of the core is due to temperature differences in the core and the rotation of the earth. This motion caused the motion of electrical charges in the core, which creates electrical current.
- The rapid decay theory states that the electrical current in the core started as a consequence of how the earth formed and is decreasing over time.
what makes the rapid decay theory more valid than dynamo
- The rapid decay theory has been used to accurately predict the magnetic fields of other planets. The dynamo theory failed at this.
why is a catastrohpe like the worldwide flood in noah time an essential part of the earths history if the rapid decay theory is true
catastrophes like that point to the theory where the magnetic field has reversed sometimes
what 2 good reasons make scientist ignore the more scientific valid rapid decay theory
- 1 if they believed it they would have to believe the earth is younger than a billion years old
- .2 most scientists don't believe in a cataclysmic event that happened
why would life cease to exist if there were no magnetic field
if there was no magnetic field the cosmic rays would kill us
what are the plates in the plate tectonics
islands of rock that float on the asthenosphere
what can happen when plates collide
- One plate can slide under another and for a trench.
- The plates can move away from each other, allowing magma to rise and create new crust. The plates can push against each other causing the crust to fold.The plates can slide along each other.
what is pangae
A hypothetical supercontinent that might have existed in the earth's past
why do otherwise good scientist ignore the plate tectonic theory despite the evidence
scientist who belive in the bible think that the earth would have to billions of years old for the theory to work so they don't consider it a valid theory
what causes earthquakes
when rock masses move along the fault or volcanic activity
describe the elastic rebound theory of earthquakes
masses of rock have fault between them as they try to move they bend eventually they break free from each other and rebound to normal shape. The resulting vibrations are what we feel as an earthquake
a seismologist detects an earthquake that measures 4 on the richter scale . later he detects on the measure 8. how many more times energy does the second earthquake release as compared to the first
name the 4 kinds of mountains. what is required for the formation of each
- fault block mountain ; need vertical motion along a fault
- folded mountian; need rock masses pushing against each other
- domed mountian & volcanic mountain; need magma from the earth's mantle
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