Psych Exam 3

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Psych Exam 3
2014-12-10 14:09:46
Psych psychology
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  1. Definition of psychopathy
    antisocial personality disorder plus emotional impairment
  2. 4 Possible causes of psychopathy
    • 1. Abnormal connectivity
    • 2. Priming Deficits
    • 3. Emotion Recognition Deficits
    • 4. Reduced Responding to Emotional Stimuli
  3. Action Principle
    Harm cause by action is worse than harm by omission
  4. Intention Principle
    Intended harm is worse than harm that is just foreseen
  5. Contact Principle
    Harm caused by direct physical contact is worse than another means
  6. Brain localization of action, intention, and contact principles
    Action & contact are driven by higher reasoning 

    Intention principle driven by emotions
  7. Social Domain theory
    idea that all existing rules can be separated into moral rules and conventional rules
  8. Moral Rules
    intrinsic & universal, apply no matter what

    ex: murder is always wrong
  9. Conventional Rules
    created by society, only applies in the context of that society

    ex: eating with hands in other cultures
  10. 3 levels of moral development & age levels
    1. Pre-conventional: only concerned with immediate reward of behavior (up until age 10)

    2. Conventional: all about following rules of society (adolescents & adults)

    3. Post-conventional: consider individual perspectives (only small percentage of adults)
  11. Kant's theory
    • Categorical imperative
    • - maxim= goal of your actions
  12. Hume's theory
    • Sentimentalism
    • - morality doesn't come from reasoning, it comes from emotion and bursts of passion
    • - reason is the slave of passion
  13. Where did Hume and Kant think morality was located?
    Kant- morality is located in the cerebral/frontal cortex

    Hume- morality is located in older parts of brain (limbic system)
  14. What did Darwin think morality is for?
    To keep societies tight knit and provide structure
  15. Haidt's 6 moral foundations
    • 1. Care/Harm
    • 2. Fairness/cheating
    • 3. Loyalty/betrayal
    • 4. Authority/Subversion
    • 5. Sanctity/Degradation
    • 6. Liberty/Opression
  16. How do liberals and conservatives think about Haidt's foundations?
    Conservatives care equally about all

    Liberals care more about care/fairness than others
  17. What does the IAT measure?
    implicit bias
  18. Basic Findings of the IAT
    adults are slower at pairing blacks with good words than with bad words
  19. How implicit bias shows priming effects
    Concept of whites may overlap with good things and concepts of blacks overlap with bad things
  20. Minimal Group Paradigm
    Care more about your in-group than your out-group

    Realized that it is impossible to make a group where categorizations are so minimal that preferences for in group and out group are not present
  21. Robbers Cave Experiment
    assigned children in summer camp to one of two groups, which quickly bonded and formed in-group bias

    Researchers eventually brought the groups back together and made them work together to solve a water supply problem
  22. What does the robbers cave experiment reveal
    Our tendency for wanting to identify with a group

    seen as early as the age of 4 or 5
  23. Football game example (effect of group on perception/memory)
    Princeton students claimed dartmouth students stared nasty play and exaggerated. Dartmouth students claimed both were equally responsible
  24. Neglecting Variability (effect of groups on perception/memory)
    introduce stimuli in categories or without categories

    people are better at remembering lengths of lines when they are not in categories because category difference accentuates things
  25. Illusory Correlations (effect of groups on perception/memory)
    Proportion of red balls is same in both groups (33%) but people think proportion is higher in smaller groups because it stands out more
  26. Stereotype Threat
    negative consequences of race can be triggered very subtly

    ex: filling out demographic info before an exam
  27. Implications of Stereotype Threat
    when you're a member of a group that is the target of stereotypes, bringing that social category to mind can bring anxiety and result in lower test performance
  28. Features of Quality Contact
    • 1. personal interaction
    • 2. equal status between groups
    • 3. cooperation
  29. Contact Hypothesis
    Getting people to get along with others by making them spend time together
  30. Factors that protect against bias
    • 1. Intimate relationships with out-group members
    • 2. Openness to new experiences
    • 3. Positive contact with diversity
    • 4. Internal motivation
  31. External vs. internal motivation for overcoming bias
    • External- socially unacceptable
    • Internal- personal values
  32. Jean Piaget (who he is & what he's known for)
    Grandfather of developmental psychology

    Developed theory of cognitive development
  33. Constructivism
    children are not born with all the knowledge they  need, they construct that knowledge as they grow up through observations and experiences
  34. According to Piaget, all learning consists of 3 process:
    Assimilation- transforming into a format you can understand

    Accommodation- revising current knowledge in response to new experiences

    Equilibration- equilibrium between assimilation and accomodation
  35. What is meant by stage theory
    Children pass through successive stages from infant hood to adulthood
  36. Sensorimotor period (and age)
    0-2 years

    can reach for things but cannot form mental representations yet
  37. Failures during sensorimotor period
    object permanence- if object is hidden, children forget that it is even there

    A not B error- when object is hidden behind a different thing, children continue to reach towards first place
  38. Preoperational Period (& age)
    2-6 years

    begin to represent experiences in memory, focus on a single aspect of an event (centration)
  39. Failures during preoperational stage (4 of them)
    Conservation- child thinks there are more marbles in taller cup, even though he is shown there are equal amounts

    Transitivity- if A=B and B=C, they have hard time understanding that A=C

    Egocentrism- children don't have ability to think from other people's perspectives

    Appearance vs. Reality- children don't realize that appearance may not be what it is in reality
  40. Concrete-Operational Period (&age)
    6-12 years

    can only solve problems that are grounded in concrete laws, no abstract terms & ideas
  41. Failures during concrete-operational period
    Formal Logic- don't rely on logical games, rely on what they know

    Systematic Testing- unable to hold one variable constant while testing other
  42. Formal Operational Period (& age)
    12+ years

    Can think about abstract concepts and hypotheses and can perform systematic experiments to draw conclusions about the world
  43. Near transfer vs. far transfer
    Near- learn to tie shoelaces on yellow string, transfer that to orange string

    Far- use chess strategies and apply it to war
  44. Challenges to Piaget
    he interpreted not reaching as not knowing, but forgot babies might not be able to reach

    didn't think about motivation, maybe babies were motivated to reach for something

    Rise of smart babies
  45. How habituation method is used to test babies' categorization skills
    habituation- dying off of a response over time

    babies look at cats for a long time, eventually get bored. When shown picture of cat vs. dog, if they look at dog longer, then they can tell the difference
  46. Violation of expectation method
    Babies look longer at what interests them

    (like if ball touches another ball but second ball doesn't move)
  47. Coherence
    Babies look longer at second scenario (ball rolling past block & not being stopped by it)
  48. Continutity
    Object continues to exist & needs to follow continuous path to get from point A to point B

    Babies are surprised when the doll is shown at both ends of block with nothing in between
  49. Contact
    object can only move if something directly contacts it

    babies are surprised when ball doesn't move if it is touched or when it moves without being pushed
  50. Core knowledge
    the knowledge we are born with
  51. Decalage
  52. Horizontal Faculties
    there are different stages that you move past as you age
  53. Vertical Faculties
    move up through certain columns

    develop independently of other faculties
  54. Examples of horizontal faculties
    inhibitory control- children at young age are unable to inhibit the way they first learn to sort things in the game

    working memory - how much info you can take
  55. Core number system 1 vs. 2 & how they are combined
    Core sytem 1- exact small number system

    Core system 2- approximate large number system

    through formal instruction and language, the two eventually get combined
  56. Brain system responsible for emotion
    subcortical structures
  57. Functional roles of affect
    Serve as cues

    Help us avoid dangerous/scary things

    attract us to things we want/potential mates
  58. Purpose of Arousal
    serves as bodily monitor and provides useful cues to understand the body

    on all the time (more aroused vs. less aroused)
  59. Role of Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex in Arousal
    Gets signals from other parts of brain through sense of arousal, tries to guess what is causing that signal, and structures response around that guess

    (not always correct at guessing)
  60. Bridge study (evidence of misattributing arousal)
    people who walked over risky bridge were more likely to call woman than people who walked over safe bridge

    VMPFC misattributes arousal from bridge to the woman
  61. Cheater Study (evidence of misattribution of arousal)
    people given the pill were more likely the cheat because they misattributed the arousal of cheating, thinking it was caused by pill
  62. Heartbeat study (evidence of misattribution of arousal)
    Males rated women higher when they heard their heartbeats going faster, misattributed arousal of unknown heartbeat to their own
  63. Capgras Syndrome
    patients function normally but think they are living in world of impostors (Invasion of the body snatchers)

    Don't have the feeling of knowing someone because they don't experience a state of arousal when they see familiar faces
  64. Consequences of damage to Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex (VMPFC) + 2 examples (gambling/morals)
    results in behaviors similar to those of phineas gage

    become riskier gamblers

    moral decision making- more willing to harm others to get  maximum good for themselves or a large number of people
  65. Three features of emotion
    Change in brain state, that results in us having emotions

    Interpretation of feelings

    Emotional expression
  66. Role of Amygdala
    reacts when we see fear in other or experience it ourselves
  67. Consequences of damage to amygdala (2 ex)
    Patient SP --> knew blue block would bring her shock, but didn't remove her hand because of lack of fear, just accepted that it would happen

    Emotion recognition --> bad at identifying un-trustworth people in environment because they don't have normal fear response
  68. 2 Systems for positive emotions
    Dopamine- reward/pleasure

    Serotonin- well being
  69. Six basic/universal emotions
    • Disgust
    • Fear
    • Happiness
    • Sadness
    • Anger
    • Surprise
  70. Display Rules
    there are cultural norms/rules for when it is appropriate to display these emotions

    American College students vs. Japanese students
  71. Function of Emotional Expression
    useful for communication

    disgust response helps prevent toxic smell from getting further into our body
  72. Why is it hard to measure personality
    because we cannot experimentally manipulate it
  73. Limitations of Type based approaches to measuring personality
    4 personality types: earth, fire, air, water

    very arbitrary features that claim to predict how you are as a person
  74. Limitations of theme-based approaches to measuring personality (freud)
    individuals pass through certain stages depending on their age, not only fixed in one
  75. Problems of measuring themes (Ink blot test and Thematic Apperception Test)
    tests are problematic because researcher has to read a lot into them

    validity- cannot affirm validity of measurement, or why one is wrong and other is not

    observer bias
  76. Type-Based vs. Dimensional Based approach to personality
    dimensions- on a continuum, person can be anywhere on the line

    type- put into discrete categories
  77. What are the "Big Five" Personality traits?
    Conscientiousness- extent to which person is focused/persistent in pursuit of goals

    Agreeableness- describes person's orientations toward people and how they interact with others

    Negative Emotionality- natural tendency to experience negative emotions

    Openness- person's orientation towards novelty, change, and uncertainty

    Extraversion- person's level of arousal preference for stimulation
  78. Problems with measuring personality traits
    subject bias/reactivity- do people respond with what they actually do or what they want to do?

    lack of insight- bad at evaluating their own behavior
  79. Findings regarding where personality comes from
    Twin Studies --> 

    Neurotransmitters --> serotonin, dopamine

    Temperament --> how much people regulate behaviors vs. act on desires

    Birth order --> first born siblings are usually most conscientiousness
  80. Intelligence (definition)
    reflects your ability to solve problems
  81. Evidence of heritability of intelligence
    as you share less genes with a person, your intelligence is less closely related
  82. How is intelligence measured
    Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children -- how much basic info children have depends on what they have been exposed to

    Raven's progressive matrices -- less dependent on person's background, but some may have leg up
  83. Flynn Effect
    We are getting smarter over time, IQ scores are rising rapidly
  84. History of Mental Illnesses
    First Mental Hospital: Bedlam

    Andrea Yates (2001)
  85. Psychopathology (definition)
    • a physical illness that drastically impairs
    • normal cognitive processing
  86. Psychopathology vs. Neuropsychology
    • neuro- how OVERT brain injury affects cognition
    • (you know where injury is, study how damage to that area affects brain function)

    • psycho- how COVERT brain injury affects cognition
    • (don't know where injury is, but know something has gone wrong)
  87. Diathesis-Stress Model (what it is)
    • Diathesis- risk
    • Stress- can turn risk into actual illness
  88. Problems of nosology (classification) of disorders
    Classification based on symptoms instead of causes -- can't do direct test for disorder

    Continual vs. discrete symptoms -- hard to make cutoff for when someone has disorder

    Comorbidity -- showing symptoms of multiple disorders at once

    Ethnic/Cultural Variation -- certain disorders only found in certain parts of the world
  89. Types of Anxiety Disorders
    • Phobia
    • Panic Disorder
    • Generalized Anxiety Disorder
    • OCD
    • Post-traumatic Stress disorder
  90. The two types of mood disorders
    Depression --> sad mood most of day, every day

    Bipolar Disorder --> alternating episodes of mania and depression
  91. Schizophrenia (symptoms & its causes)
    Positive symptoms --> delusions, hallucinations, disorganized thought & speech, inappropriate emotions

    Negative symptoms --> lack of motivation, social engagement, concentration, movement

    • Causes
    • Diathesis --> heritability, prenatal trauma
    • Stress --> Social Isolation, Drug Abuse, Family Dynamis
  92. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) & what it treats
    inhibits the re-uptake of serotonin, which increases its concentration in the brain, allowing it to flow freely

    treat --> depression, anxiety disorders
  93. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) & what it treats
    repeated exposure to stimulus to show that predicted reaction doesn't happen, in order to break the association

    gradually desensitize over time

    same as breaking associations in classical conditioning

    treats --> phobias, OCD, various anxiety disorders