Philosophy 201 Greek Philosophers

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Philosophy 201 Greek Philosophers
2014-12-10 22:46:17
greek philosophers philosophy 201
philosophy 201
Pre-Milesian, Milesian Monists, Three Iconoclasts, Eleatic Monism, Pluralists
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  1. Pre-Milesians
    • "all beings came into being after I came into being"
    • gods and beings are anthropomorphic - sexual reproduction
    • can invent new gods
    • not open to critique - based on a story
  2. Thales
    • Milesian Monist
    • predicted solar eclipse 585 BC
    • water = arché because the earth rests on it
    • water, and all things, are full of gods
  3. Anaximander
    • Milesian Monist
    • "indefinite" = base of all things
    • earth is at equilibrium (because all things are at rest)
    • humans were born from different types of animals
    • student of Thales
    • how could something wet produce something dry?
    • spoke in poetical language
  4. Anaximenes
    • Milesian Monist
    • air = arché
    • air was a god (infinite)
    • air has many forms (through rarifaction and condensation)
  5. Pythagoras
    • Iconoclast
    • vegetarianism (based on thoughts of reincarnation)
    • his beliefs became a way of life/religion
    • music = harmony - based on mathematics and ratios
    • first to use "cosmos" (order)
    • remembered past lives
  6. Xenophanes
    • Iconoclast
    • "why aren't the gods perfect?"
    • introduced a new god - immobile, moves with his mind
    • first to distinguish between knowledge and belief
    • constant struggle between earth and water (fossils on a mountain)
  7. Heraclitus
    • Iconoclast
    • the riddler, his arché is fire
    • relativism of perspective, opposing forces (change)
    • eternal happiness would be boring, have to mix it up
    • logos (law/account/reason) - humans can't understand it
  8. Parmenides
    • Eleatic Monist
    • spoke to the goddess (who represented pure thought)
    • "that it is and that it is not possible for it not to be"
    • the statement "nothing is something that does not exist" is contradicting itself
    • Path of persuasion (that it is etc) vs Opinions of mortals (things can both exist and not exist)
  9. Melissus
    • Eleatic Monist
    • the "what is" is unlimited
    • makes his "one" infinite
    • we are at odds with our senses
    • All change is an illusion
  10. Zeno
    • Eleatic Monist
    • bow and arrow -> no movement because of midpoints
    • "the 'what is' will be undivided and partless and one"
    • continually dividing until something is uncuttable or nothing
  11. Empedocles
    • pluralist
    • the earth is made of elements (earth, water, fire, air)
    • love (combines) vs strife (separates)
    • reincarnation based on merit
    • there was no beginning of time (coming into being)
    • humans/objects are a mixture of all the elements
  12. Anaxagoras
    • pluralist
    • infinite divisibility (size is relative)
    • all things have a portion of everything
    • "mind" = rules all living things (guides)
  13. Democritus
    • atom = invisible partible, uncuttable
    • unlimitted in number and shape, always there
    • a-tomon = "uncuttable," building block
    • void - empty: nothingness causes motion