PSYC 101 Neuroscience

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PSYC 101 Neuroscience
2014-12-11 13:06:30
psychology 101 neuroscience

psyc 101 final
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  1. psychological science
    study of mind, brain, behavior
  2. "Automaticity of everyday life"
    unconscious influences determine thoughts, feelings, actions
  3. amiable skepticism
    trait combines openness and wariness
  4. critical thinking
    systematically evaluating information to reach reasonable conclusions
  5. schools of thought
    • different ways of thinking about the content of psychology
    • nature/nurture and culture
    • Mind/body
  6. Nature/nature school of thought and culture
    • arguments concern whether psychological characteristics are biologically innate or acquired through education, experience, culture
    • culture: beliefs, values, rules, customs that exist within group of ppl who share a common language and environment and that are transmitted through learning from one generation to the next
  7. Mind/body school of thought
    • fundamental psychological issue: are mind and body separate and distinct, or is the mind simply the physical brain's subjunctive experience?
    • Rene Descarters theory of dualism: mind and body separate but intertwined
  8. System of Logic
    psychology needs to leave philosophy and speculation and become science of observation and experiment
  9. introspection
    systematic examination of subjective experiences that require ppl to inspect and report on content of thoughts
  10. Wilhelm Wundt (father of modern psychology) structualism
    conscious experience can be broken down into basic underlying components
  11. stream of consciousness
    phrase coined by William James to describe each person's continuous series of ever-changing thoughts
  12. functionalism
    approach to psychology concerned with adaptive purpose, or function, of mind and behavior
  13. evolutionary theory, adaptations, natural selection
    • Charles darwin
    • evolutionary theory: views history of a species in terms of inherited adaptive value of physical characteristics, of mental activity, and of behavior
    • adaptations: physical characteristics, skills, abilities that increase chance of reproduction/survival. Likely to be passed down
    • natural selection: process by which random mutations that are adaptive are passed along and those not adaptive are not. 'survival of the fittest"
  14. Gestalt theory
    • based on the idea that the whole of a personal experience is different from simply the sum of its constituent elements
    • percention of objects is subjective and dependent on context
  15. Sigmund freud unconscious level
    much of human behavior determined by mental processes operating below the level of conscious awareness, at level of unconscious
  16. Sigmund freud psychoanalysis and "free association"
    • attempts to bring contents of unconscious into conscious awareness so conflicts can be revealed
    • free association: technique in which patient talks about whatever he/she wants for as long as he/she wants
  17. John Watson behaviorism
    • psychological approach that emphasizes the role of environmental factors in producing behavior
    • believes in NURTURE (not nature)
  18. B. F. Skinner mental states
    believes they are illusions and are of no scientific value in explaining behavior
  19. cognitive psychology
    study of how ppl think, learn, remember
  20. information processing
    theories of cognition viewed the brain as running the mind, mental processes
  21. cognitive neuroscience
    study of neural mechanisms that underlie thought, learning, memory
  22. social psychology
    study of how ppl are influenced by their interactions with others
  23. cultural norms
    cultural rules
  24. cultural neuroscience
    studies the ways that cultural variables affect the brain, mind, genes, behavior
  25. biological level of analysis
    deals with how physical body(with brain) contributes to mind and behavior
  26. Individual level of analysis
    focuses on individual differences in personality and mental processes that affect how people perceive and know the world
  27. Social level of analysis
    involves how group contexts affect how people interact and influence each other
  28. cultural level of analysis
    explores how ppl's thoughts, feelings, and actions are similar or different across cultures
  29. echnomusicology
    cross-cultural study of music preferences
  30. culturally sensitive research
    takes into account the significant role that culture plays in how we think, feel, act
  31. observational techniques
    involve systematic assessment and coding of overt behavior
  32. reactivity and Hawthorne effect
    • when the knowledge that one is being observed alters the behavior being observed
    • Hawthorne effect: refers to changes in behavior that occur when ppl know that others are observing them
  33. case studies
    research method that involves intensive examination of unusual ppl or organizations
  34. self-report methods: experience sampling and self report bias
    • people are asked to provide info about themselves, such as in questionnaires or surveys
    • experience sampling: researchers take several samples of participants experiences over time
    • self-report bias: people report that they are better than average, messing up data
  35. response performance
    research method in which researchers quantify perceptual or cognitive processes in response to specific stimulus
  36. psychophysiological assessment
    • taking blood pressure, mental states, temp, perspiration rate, breathing rate, etc in response to stimulus
    • polygraphs:lie detectors
  37. electrophysiology
    electroencephalogram EEG
    • electrophysiology: data collection method that measures electrical activity in brain
    • EEG: device that measures electrical activity in brain
  38. positron emission tomography PET
    method of brain imaging that assesses metabolic activity by using a radioactive substance injected into bloodstream/glucose flow
  39. Magnetic resonance imaging MRI
    • method of brain imaging that produces high quality images of brain
    • nothing about how neurons work
  40. functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI
    • image technique used to examine changes in the activity of the working human brain
    • do tell how neurons work
  41. transcranial magnetic stimulation TMS
    use of strong magnets to briefly interrupt normal brain activity as a way to study brain regions
  42. institutional review boards IRBs
    groups of ppl responsible for reviewing proposed research to ensure that it meets the accepted standards of science and provides for the physical and emotional well being of the research participants
  43. rick/benefit ratio
    analysis of whether the research is important enough to warrant placing participants at risk
  44. Lashley's engrams
    storage of learned material
  45. Clive Wearing Case Study
    • Amnesia
    • 30 sec memory
    • temporal lobe damage, hippocampus
  46. Phineas Gage case study
    • rod through head
    • nice>jerk
    • (left) frontal lobe important for personality
  47. CAT scan
    • won't tel anything about function
    • good for tumor/edema
  48. Scientific method
    • develop theory>generate hypothesis> gather data
    • intro>methods/results>discussion