learning and behavior final part 1
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how is negative reinforcement equivalent to escape and avoidance?
the response is equivalent in both instances
performance of the behavior terminates the aversive stimulus (the aversive stimulus is removed)
we escape from the rain when we run indoors after it has started
performance of the behavior prevents the aversive stimulus from occurring (aversive stimulus avoided)
we avoid the rain when we head indoors before it has started
shuttle avoidance procedure (definition)
an animal has to shuttle back and forth in a box to avoid an aversive stimulus
shuttle avoidance procedure (procedure)
escape: shock (Sd) is followed by the behavior of crossing the barrier (R) which leads to removal of the shock (Sr)
Avoidance: the light (Sd) is followed by the behavior of crossing the barrier (R) which leads to the avoidance of shock (Sr)
One-process theory (operant conditioning)
the act of avoidance is negatively reinforced simply by the lower rate of aversive stimulation it is associated with (the decrease in aversive stimulation is the reinforcer)
Two-process theory of avoidance(classical and operant conditioning)
two processes are involved in learning and avoidance response
aversive thoughts that generate anxiety
behaviors that are negatively reinforced because they relieve the anxiety
prevents compulsive behaviors and allow anxiety to extinguish
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