death and dying final
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. What would you like to do?
main work is suicide prevention/attempt prevention
what are two groups of people who contemplate suicide?
- those who exhibit suicidal behavior
- immediate crisis/little or no forethought invovled
what country has the highest suicide rate?
what method did British use in the 1960s for suicide?
what happens when there is a time gap to think about suicide?
suicide rate becomes lower
what is the difference in impulse control at night and during the day?
less impulse control at night making it harder to come up with alternatives to suicide
what has contributed to greater organ donation?
- cars have been made better (can preserve organs)
- regenerative medicine from biotech companies
- animal substitutes
who are fox and swazey
- medical sociologist, who found income factor involved in organ donation
- more high income people get assigned organs (relatively smaller black population getting organs)
- this is b/c procedure is expensive and specific medications need to be followed to prevent heart rejection.
- screens people for insurance and ability to pay for transplant before giving people a transplant
- people with mental problems (it's just not going to work)
what is one way to think about why white americans are more willing to donate organs than black?
- white culture
- blacks don't want to donate their organs to whites, who will most likely get them
where do 25% of the organs come from?
uninsured people, which is also the population who are less likely to get organs
2/3 of people waiting for an organ are waiting for what organ?
what is transplant tourism?
americans going overseas to get organs, perhaps some people are forced to give away their organs
assisted suicide group who instructs clients to put helium balloon over their heads
jack Kevorkian "Dr. Death"
- advocate for assisted suicide, came up with suicide machine (thanatron) that will inject lethal injections
- -thanatron: machine with saline, chemicals to put you to sleep or killed you, person pushes button saline/sleep med/toxin.
- client pushes button (assisted suicide), Dr. Jack pushes it (euthansia or murder)
what is the meaning of euthansia as it is used today?
- not suicide, an act that is assisted, act of painlessness to death
- a being suffering with an incurable condition for reasons of mercy
differentiate between assisted suicide and euthansia?
- he helped her die (euthansia)
- he gave her a cocktail and she drinks (assisted suicide)
how was euthansia used in 1800, 1900?
- easy, relatively easy death, not hastened death
- reduce suffering with terminal disease (not suicide)
- 1869 sparsely reference to use of euthansia for someone actively putting someone to death
when did euthansia come out?
thomas more's utopia in 1516
- in relation to assisted suicide, he said that the goal is to control pain, but if that means increase in chance of death (then acceptable)
- he does not support euthansia
active and passive euthansia
- active: doing something (knowing that they will die)
- passive (don't do anything, don't put them on respirator)
voluntary and involuntary active euthansia?
- voluntary (reasons of mercy)
- involuntary (deformed child killed, infanaticide)
machine with carbon monoxide by Dr. Jack K
what are the four factors that increase suicide rates?
- no kids
how does integration and regulation cause suicide?
- too much integration (altruistic), too little is egoistic can lead to suicide
- too regulated (fatalist), not enough (anomic--absence of social norms and values)
in Tokyo during rush hour.
people work so much that they die
as GDP increase in Korea why does suicide rate also increase
b/c increase and decrease in financial crisis causes disturbances in societal structure
- state of being deprived of someone
- as a state (lost someone)
- as a process (working through psychologically, and the grief
when is it that your called orphan?
when you have lost both parents
- analyzed bureaucracy like the rationalization of all sorts of things and the impersonal rules of bureaucracy-->what he found was that it is not that your boss is mean but we have to treat everyone the same, you have a job, you have to come back
- rules and rationalizations
- described acute grief
- has symptoms like shortness of breath, tightness of throat, empty feeling in abs, signs, extreme weakness of muscles, headaches
- lasts 4-6 weeks
- comes back periodically (anniversaries, birthdays)
- psychologically person can be otherwise read as normal, but not
difference between grief, mourning and disenfrancised grief
- grief: visible or psychological components. acute grief is consequence of grief that takes physical form
- mourning: working through grief and external presentation (wearing black)
- disenfrancised grief: surviving person does not get the support
what are the stages of grief and grieving?
denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance
anger in grief
- anger is part of the healing process
- need to express anger and all the range of emotions, part of saying goodbye (walking the casket to its resting place, anger is expressed on the way (Ghana tribe)
child died after a long process. grief goes on before the person dies
The Stage of Grief No One Admits to: Relief by
husband killed in car accident on way from work, she thanked everyone on the surgical team, mix of sadness and pain (she had an unhappy marriage, but had to play role of grieving widow)
highest intensities of bereavement and widest range of actions are evoked by what?
death of a child
when child carries the gene, and people enjoy seeing their success in their child
what are the stages of death of child
- induced abortions
- death in childhood years
what stage of death of child is poorly recognized by others?
- can have feelings of guilt if the mom drinks alcohol
which "stage" of death of child can mix feelings most often occur?
- induced abortions
- sadness and relief that baby is gone.
what is stillborn
fetus dies in uterus before it is delivered
what stage of child death do most people feel that medical mismanagement is to blame?
which person in the movie was in coma state
marvin (his brother tells him to wake up but he doesn't. some motor reflexes are still there
which person from the movie is in PVS
which person in the movie was in minimally conscious state?
wayne, whose wife was very persistent to get him better, he was partially conscious
what are the stages of ones consciousness?
coma, PVS, minimally conscious, fully conscious with major cognitive defects, fully conscious with no obvious cognitive defects
what is braindead?
brain stem and high brain is not functioning
8 years later husband files petition to have feeding tubes removed,
karen ann quinlan
- drugs made her very sick, revived to PVS, turn off respirator and died 9 years later.
- case debating the removal of respirator
- remove feeding tube
- issue of language: Prolife people say that she will starve to death
- when you think about tennis, one side of the brain lights up (means you're answering yes)
- think about running around (means no)
wrote about aging and soccer player, patient of cenegenics (Bellizzi)
purveyor of age-management medicine
human chorionic gonadotropin
hormone produced by placenta after implantation, also signal testes to secrete more testosterone
what are reasons where testosterone and growth factors are prescribed
for stunted growth and atrophy in AIDS
ted speaker, he wants to tweak genes to make us more alive
protect us from aging, delays aging and diseases when it is turned on
- living to 100 and beyond
- increase in life expectancy adds to national wealth
opponent of anti-aging
uses hormones to become buff at old age
what is the response to the argument that growth hormones may cause cancer?
cenegenics keep the people's hormone intake levels to about the level at age 35
Ray Kurzweil and Terry Grossman
- Fantastic Voyage: living long enough to live forever
- three bridges
- 1. do things that we know to be healthy and good for our body (exercise, calorie restriction)
- 2. invest in biotechnology (regenerative medicine)
- 3. nanotechnology (machines send them to organs of interest)
david sinclair, active ingredient in red wine, believed to have
SENS Research Foundation
(strategies for engineered negligible senescence) maintain state of negligible senescence in the patient to postpone age related diseases for as long as the therapies are applied (periodical repair of all age-related damage to human tissue)
Aubrey de Grey
- can regenerative medicine thwart the aging process?
- started the Mehuselah Foundation
overtime, laws are
what did st. augustine say about abortion?
emsoulment: a soul in a fetus when it starts kicking
1869 he excommunicated abortion
19th century abortion
criminalized b/c it put the mother at risk
ring around the rosie
- 14th or 17th involved the plague
- children sang it
- great fire of london helped to end the plague
- english version talked about sneezing, while american version talked about cremation (ash to ash)
posie from ring around rosie
sweet smelling herbs to keep the plague away
what are the deeper meaning of ring around the rosie?
- reflects the socialization of death
- death rates were higher for children-->the socialization of death of children-->parents have to be ready for children to die
mature view of death
- end of all physiological function
death for children
- avoidable if you avoid certain mistakes
when do people say children become aware of death?
at age 2
presence and absence is important in seeing death as in playing pee-ka-boo
- formed ideas about children's conception of death before WWII
- 3 stages of development of children's understanding of death
- 1. (3-5 yr) death is not final, state of being asleep, on a trip, diminished view (how do people breath in grave children might ask, we tell them, they do but not very well)
- 2. (5-9yr) tendency to personify death (angel, clown), image of harlequin (emissaries of devil), recognize that death is final, seeing death can be avoided (personal death)
- 3. (9 and older): mature conception
biggest fear of children of death
being separated from family, esp mother
directed the seventh seal (when black death came to Europe), chess game (male protagonist and death), keep beating death, but death will get you
most common cause of death 1-14 and second most common
stages of death by Myra Bluebond Langner
- 1. symptoms: undulated with presents from family and friends, notice people less open to answer questions, integrates his experiences, conclude he must be very sick. will try out new identity to support his hypothesis
- 2. experience remission "I'm seriously ill but I will get better"
- 3. I will always be ill, but I will get better. child tries to learn more about condition, pretends to sleep to overhear conversations (this is after 2nd remission)
- 4. will will always be ill and not get better. pain, do less and less for themselves, hospital centered (better pain control in hospitals) concerned about friends
talk to people who are dead. I think its a software
restrict US funds to international family planning groups involved in abortion. vowed to protect every person at every stage and season of life
roe vs. wade
women have a constitutional right to abortion and that states do not have a right to regulate abortions, particularly abortions performed during the first trimester
in 1974 what became the second most commonly performed surgical procedure?
he argued that physicians participated in this anti-abortion movement were motivated less by moral concerns than by their own elitist fears of a drop in birthrate among society's better classes and by their desire to enhance their own professional recognition and monopolize the provision of healthcare.
1873 criminalized birth control devices, the distribution of info on birth control and sexuality and abortion.
opened the nation's first birth control clinic in 1916 and founded the American Birth Control League (predecessor of Planned Parenthood)
what was said in roe vs wade about unborn child
deemed the unborn not a person within the meaning and protection of the term person as stated in the 14th amendment
doe vs. bolton
court struck down restrictions on the kinds of facilities where abortions can be performed
morning after abortion pill approved by FDA in 2000, provides another example of no-fault ,me-frist, pill-taking ethos of modern society
catholic church teaches that "ensoulment" occurs at moment of conception. until a few centuries ago in the west, personhood was often not conferred until a child had survived to age of several years b/c of high infant mortality rate
what kind of slippery slop theses have anti-abortion groups arised?
legal abortion increase sexual permissiveness and godlessness and diminishes respect for human life
dilation and extraction
- late term abortion procedure, induction of partial breech delivery, cutting the fetus's skull, and suctioning its contents
- supreme court made this procedure illegal
earlly 2002 what did bush do?
declared that embryos and developing fetuses quality for government health care program, indicated gov't recognition of life at moment of conception
are in aborted fetuses and leftover embryos in fertility clinics can be programmed to produce particular body parts
during what election did the pro-life firmly align with Republican party?
president that aligned with prolife movement. He extended it to severely deformed infants, posting signs in the hospitals that say discrimination towards the handicapped infants is prohibited
abortion issue contributed to greater gender gap as women defected from Republican party.
who is more likely to favor abortion? What level of economic class and education?
better paid and better educated
according to one feminist perspective what is one of the newest mechanism by which patriarchal society control women?
constraints on abortion rights
john donahue and steven levitt
- crime is product of unwanted children brught into the world by young, poor, undereducated and unmarried females.
- reduced crime as a result of abortion may be on the order of $30 billion annually.
- thanatology: the scientific study of death
- kearl and harris showed that individuals orientation toward matters of death lies at the very core of his or her entire moral framework
where did the earliest recorded use of death penalty in the New world?
- virginia in 1622
- execution of george kendall
what was the difference in methods between the british and us during colonization?
british used drawing, quartering, beheading, breaking on the wheel, colonies used hanging
where can the movement to abolish death penalty be traced to?
- quakers in PA benjamin rush
- quakers passed the great act which limited capital punishment
on crime and punishment by cesare beccaria
- credited with influencing European though about death penalty...reduced number of crimes punishable by death.
- beccaria thought long term imprisonment is better at preventing future crime
PA's attorney general proposed that there should be gradations of murder
two stage trial
- should two stage trial be necessary in capital case?
- first jury would det guilty or innocent, then same jury determines sentence.
what is one way to test out if death penalty should be the sentence?
does the death penalty constitute cruel and unusual punishment?
what did the furman case reveal?
court decided that death penalty is not unconstitutional per say, but the manner in which the sentence is imposed may be unconstitutional
a condition that makes the crime in question worse somehow like killed an old man.
what are the legal methods of execution?
electrocution, lethal gas, hanging, firing squad and lethal injections
what percentage people executed are women?
what are the three nations that executes offenders for crimes committed when they were juveniles
US, iran and democratic republic of congo.
does eighth amendment prohibit the use of death penalty for 16-17 year old?
geroge h bush in 1993 authorized what as the sole method of execution for federal offenders?
who has the power to pardon a federal death roe inmate?
president of US
which states prohibit the execution of mentally disabled?
georgia, maryland and federal justice system
who was the rwanda genocide against?
- carried out by hutus
- rwandan patriotic front, tutsi soldiers commit atrocities against Hutus.
- wanted tutsi refugees to return and a share of political powerin rwanda
what incited the Hutu civilians to kill?
inflammatory radio broadcasts.
most people in Rwanda are brought up to accept fate
how is it determined if you're a Hutu or Tutsi?
who your father was
theory that tutsis were superior b/c they originated in Ethiopia where they had been exposed to Christianity
irving louis horowitz has written that at what point does the posibility for genocide to increase?
when the ruling elites decide that their continuation in power transcends all other economic and social values.
led the first approved suicide mission against American fleet
what was delivered to Seki's mother after Seki's death?
a lock of hair.
what is one organ that cannot be transplanted?
- new cadavers harvested for the medical community, basically cadavers but on respirators, brain is dead but other parts may be functioning.
- can be used for banking of platelets, storing major organs
- harvesting the blood, since neomorts will provide a constant supply of blood
when children are told of their diagnosis and prognosis
process is called internalization
when children are not told of their diagnosis
process is called discovery
5 stages of langner
- seriously ill
- seriously ill and will get better
- always ill and will get better
- always will and will never get better
experiences of the 5 stages of Langner
- observation of parents after told of diagnosis
- first remission
- first relapse
- several relapses and remission
- death of a peer
term referring to the well siblings of dying children, they are there but not there. They overhear convos but not part of them. They accompany the child to hospital but not present during examination
what is the two most common ways children exhiit their feelings?
sleep disorders and acting out
what evokes the highest intensities of bereavement and widest range of reactions?
death of a child
what does denial of death do?
help us cope and make survival possible. Denial helps us to pace our feelings of grief. nature's coping mechanism
what surfaces once you are feeling safe enough to know you will probably survive whatever comes
what can serve as an anchor, giving temporary structure to the nothingness of loss.
anger. it builds bridges, creating a connection between you and someone else.
anger is another indication of what?
the intensity of your love
5 stages of grief
what is nature's way to keep us protected by shutting down the nervous system so that we can adapt to something we feel we cannot handle
govern how one should think in certain situations
why, according to kamerman are some griefs disenfranchised
- death may only be allowed within the family to stress the primacy of family relationships
- rationality: organization are expected to be fiar, functional, rational-->if people allowed time off, organizational burdens.
what connates loss are critical to mourning?
durkheim says that mourning is not natural movement of feelings, but is
but is a duty imposed by the group
what is a good way to spawn grief and inform and support grievers?
social death: person is alive but treated as if dead
persona of someone has changed so much that they are like dead.
when do the counseling community disenfranchise instrumental grievers
as a result of their lack of strong affective reponse
what is the world capital of assisted suicide
what are the two conditions for dying in switzerland
that you have no self-interest in the victim's death and he is of sound mind when he killed himself.
pledged doctors to refrain from hastening the death of their patients and prohibited the prescription of fatal drugs.
sliminating imperfections from the gene pool
patients are sedated and life-sustaining support is withdrawn so they starve to death;
termination without request or consent
1000/year involuntary euthanasia deaths aren't even labeled "euthanasia" by Dutch medical statisticians
St. Christophers in U.S.
- no AIDS patient wanted assisted suicide b/c these
- patients knew that their suffering would be effectively palliated and
- they would never be abandoned.
jim jones did not create the human weakness that led us to kill ourselves
, he merely exploited them;
Bei Bei Shuai
swallowed rat poison to kill herself, but she lived, baby died, charged for murder
new constitutional battlefront
turning pregnant women into unequal citizens in the guise of protecting them.Michele Goodwin
born alive” rule
fetuses can only be declared legal victims of crimes if they have taken breaths independent of the mother
fetus has no independent status in the first trimester
roe vs. wade
Unborn Victims of Violence Act
recognizes fetuses at any state of development as legal victims if they are harmed or killed during the commission of certain federal crime
The terri schiavo case:
- coma from lack of oxygen to brain
- Terri’s law that allowed the governor to issue a one time stay of a judge’s order to remove a feeding tube in certain cases where patient
- is in PVS
- They need to understand the choices and has the ability to
- reason. Found that they can reason, by stopped brain activity after convoluted
- and complex questions
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