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t or f: agranulocytes are all functionally phagocytic.
False: granulocytes are all phagocytic
this granulocyte functions to consume and destroy bacteria. Prolonged inflammation can lead to tissue damage from its infection and pus.
This granulocyte phagocytizes allergens that are bound to antibodies and then secetes an enzyme to degrae histamine. Its most important function is to fight paracytes.
What is the largest leukocyte of NLMEB?
What is the order of stages from the myeloid stem cell to a finished erythrocyte? (1-7: 1. stem cell, 8. erythrocyte) (PBPOE)
- 1. stem cell
- 2. proerythroblast
- 3. basophilic erythroblast
- 4. polychromatic erythroblast
- 5. orthochromatic erythroblast
- 6. reticulocyte
- 7. erythrocyte
What 2 stages of rbc formation is hemoglobin made and accumulates?
- 1. basophilic erys create ribosomes and hemoglobin is made in these ribosomes
- 2. in the polychromatic ery and orthochromatic ery, the ribosomes become masked with hemoglobin
What does it mean when a person has an increased and decreased % of reticulocytes? What does an elevated number of band cells mean (band cells are immature neutrophils)
- Incrased % of reticulocytes means a person might be in high elevations, less than 1% might indicate a degenerative dsease of the bone marrow.
- Increased % of band cells is considred in indicator of infection
Heart valves that are considered incompetent or leak are termed this...
what is the function of fasciae adherens in intercalated discs of cardiac muscle?
bind adjacent ells together and transmit contractile force to adjacent cells
What is the function of endomysium in cardiac muscles?
aids to bind adjacent cardiac fibers and contains vessels and nerves.
T or F: like skeletal muscle, all cells of caridac muscle tissues are innervated.
False: an isolated cardiac muscle cell will contract rhythmically without any innervation at all
Fill in the blanks:
From the SA node, impulses spread in a wave along cardiac muscle fibers of the atria. Some of these impulses will travel along an internodal athway to the __a__ node, where they ar delayed for a raction of a second. After the delay, the impulses race through the __b__ (formerly bundle of His), which enters the interventricular septum and divides into the right and left __c__. About halfway down the septum, the bundle branches terminate in the __d__ or purkinje fibers.
- a) atrioventriular node (AV node)
- b) atrioventricular bundle
- c) bundle branches
- d) subendocardial conducting network
Which artery on the heart supplies the left atrium and posterior part of the left ventricle?
- circumflex artery
This chamber in the developing embryonic heart will become the smooth-walled art of the right atrium and the coronary sirus; it also gives rise to the SA node.
In the developing embryonic heart, this chamber gives rise to the ulmonary trunk, the first part of the aorta, and the right ventricle.
This embryonic congenital heart defect is when the superior region of the interventricular septum fails to form, leaving a hole between the two ventricles.
ventricular septal defect
T or F: in vessels smaller than 1mm in diameter,j a thin layer of loose CT lies just external to the endothelium, called the SUBENDOTHELIAL layer.
- False: vessels larger than 1mm have the subendothelial layer.
Vasoconstriction and vasodilation activities are regulated by the _____ nerve fibers of the sympathetic division.
T or F: the tunica externa is a layer of CT that contains many collagen and elastic fibers
What are the small vessicles called that arise from larger ones to nourish the outer half of the larger vessels.
What type of artery has the tunica media sandwiched between the internal elastic membrane and external elastic membrane?
What 2 things regulate the diameter of each arteriole?
- 1. local factors in tissues that signal the smooth muscles to contract or relax
- 2. the sympathetic nervous system during a flight or fight response for example
External the continuous capillaries are spider-shaped cells that strengthen and stabilize the endothelial cells.
Where can you find fenestrated capillaries?
In exceptionally high rates of exchange of small molecules: small intestines, kidneys, endocrine glands, an synovial membranes.
Where can you find sinusoid capillaries?
Occurs where there is an extensive exchange of large materials: bone marrow and spleen
What is vascular anastomoses?
When vessels unite or interconnect
What is venous disease?
The inadequate drainage of venous blood from the limb, and tissues become ischemic and vulnerable to damage.
This malformation is hen an artery continues directy into a vein.
Since fetal lungs are not inflated, blood is shunted from the ppulmonary trunk to the aorta via this channel.
smooth muscle has 2 layers that generate the alternate waves of contraction and relaxation to properl subsances by peristalsis. What are these 2 layers?
- an external layer: longitudinal layer
- deeper: circular layer
How does pyelonephritis occur?
when an infection of the renal pelvis and calices spreads to involve the rest of the kidneys.
Where are the peritubular capillaries located?
- they arise from the efferent arterioles in the cortical glomerulis (cortical nephon)
What is the purpose of the peritubular capillaries
Absorption: readily absorb solutes and water from the tubule cells after these substances are resorbed from the filtrate.
Where is the vasa recta located? What is its purpose?
- in the deepest part of the renal cortex from the juxtamedullary glomeruli.
- It is part of the kidney's urine-concentrating mechanism
- a) juxtaglomerular complex
- b) granular cells
- c) macula densa cells
- d) extraglomerular mesngial cells
What is the main function of the juxtaglomerular complex?
a structure that functions in the regulation of blood pressure
What hormones do the granular cells in the juxtaglomerular cells contain?
Renin: in response to falling blood pressure in the afferent arteriole
What is the purpose of the macula densa?
act as chemoreceptors for monitoring solute concentrations in the filtrate which can secrete renin when these concentrations fall below a certain level.
What are the 9 gastric regions in the abdomen?
What layers of the alimentary canal from deep to superficial? What are the 3 sublayers of the innermost one?
- 1. Mucosa
- i. a lining epithelium
- ii. a lamina propria
- iii. a muscularis mucosae
- 2. Submucosa
- 3. muscularis externa
What functions do the sublayers of mucosa have? (epithelium, lamina propria, and muscularis mucosae)
- 1. epithelium: Perforsms functions related to diestion such as absorbing nutrients and secreting mucus
- 2. lamina propria: its capillaries nourish the lining epithelium and absorb digested nutrients. It contains most of the MALT which defends against invasion by bacteria.
- 3. Muscularis mucosae: a layer of smooth ucsle that produces local movements of the mucosa, such as dislodging sharp food particles.
T or F: in the muscularis externa of the alimentary canal, its many elastic fibers enables the alimentary canal to return to its shae after food material passes through it
False: it's submucosa's elastic fibers that enables the alimentary canal to do this.
What is the main function of the musclaris externa?
the circular layer squeezes the gut tube and the longitudinal layer shortens it. Together these layers are responsible fr peristalsis and segmentation.
What is the difference between segmentation and peristalsis?
- Perstalsis: adjacnt asements of alimentary tract alternatively contract and relax, moving food along.
- segmentation: alimentary tract organs alternately contract and relax, moving food forward and then backward. food is mixed.
Explain the mechanism of contraction in smooth muscle. What are intermediate filaments? What are dense bodies and where do they attach to?
Intermediate filaments extend through the smooth muscle cell and are anchored to the dense bodies. The dense bodies attach to the sarcolemma
Where is the myenteric nerve plexus and what is its function?
It is in the muscularis extena and it innervates it to control peristalsis and segmentation
Where is the submucosal nerve plexus and what is its function?
it lies in the submucosa and it signals the glands in the mucosa to secrete and the muscularis mucosae to contract
When do the major (extinsic) saliary glands secrete saliva?
Only during eating or anticipation of a meal.
What nerves stimulates the parotid duct/gland?
glossoharyngeal nerve (cranial nerve IX)
T or F: the esophagus has only a serosa, but not an adventitia layer
false: it only has the adventitia, not the serosa because the thoracic esohpagus is not suspended in the peritoneal cavity
What is the enzyme called in the stomach that can only function under acidic conditions?
pepsin a protein digesting enzyme
- a) cardia
- b) fundus
- c) serosa
- d) body
- e) lumen
- f) rugae
- g) greater curvature
- h) pyloric antrum
- i) pyloric canal
- j) pyloric sphincter
- k) lesser curvature
What are the 3 types of secretory cells and their purpose?
- a) mucous neck cells: these secrete a different kind of mucus (funtion unknown)
- b) parietal cell: produces HCl and secrete a GASTRIC INTRINSIC FACTOR for absorption of vitamin B12 by the small intestine.
- c) chief cells: make and secretes pepsinogen, activated form of pepsn, as well as gastric lipase for fat digestion.
What is the hormone called that signals the parietal cell to secrete HCl when food enters the stomach and from what other cell is this hormone secreted from?
Gastrin: from the enteroendocrine cell
Where are enterocytes located? what is its function?
- In the villi of mucosa in the small intestines.
- pecilizaed for absorbing digested nutrients.
What is the main function of lacteals in the villi of the small intestine?
carbohydrates and fats enter the lacteal from the end products of digestion
What is the function of the enteroendocrine cells in the duodenum?
secretes several hormones taht signals the gallbladder to release stored bile and the pancrease to secrete digestive enzymes, as well as a juice to neutralize the acidic chyme
What is the function of paneth cells in the duodenum?
secretes enzymes that destroy bacteria and determines which ones can stay in the intestinal lumen for vitamin manuufacturing.
Whatt is the function of the undifferentiated epithelial cells in the duodenum? where are they located?
Located in the intestinal crypts: renews the mucosal epithelium due to the destructive effects of the digestive enzymes
Where hepatocyte cells located?
What is the superior ppart of the liver called that is fused to the diaphragm?
Where is the porta hepatis located and what is its significance?
In the liver,, whre most of the major vessels and nerves enter and leave.
Where are acni cells located and its functions?
In the pancreas: makes, stores and secretes at least 22 kinds of pancreatic enzymes for digesting various foodstuffs.
Where are zymogen granules located and what do store?
in acinar cells and stores the pancreatic enzymes