Histo- GI Tract.txt

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Histo- GI Tract.txt
2014-12-12 14:00:56
histo GI

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  1. What are the 4 general layers of the GI tract at any given point?
    • 1. mucosa
    • 2. submucosa
    • 3. muscularis
    • 4. serosa
  2. What are the 7 layers of the GI tract from lumen outward?
    Lumen, Epithelium, Lamina propria, Muscularis mucosae, Submucosa, Inner circular muscularis, Outer longitudinal muscularis
  3. The 3 divisions of the mucosa of the GI tract (inside to out).
    Epithelium, lamina propria, muscularis mucosa
  4. Between the submucosa and the serosa, the layer is called the ___________, which consists of the following two subdivisions...
    tunica muscularis; circular layer (inner) and longitudinal layer (outer)
  5. What are the 4 types of mucosa in the GI tract?
    protective, secretory, absorptive, and absorptive/protective
  6. The oral mucosa is composed of ________________ epithelium, which is _________.
    stratified, squamous; keritanized
  7. Where is protective mucosa found in the GI tract? (4)
    oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, and anal canal
  8. Where is secretory mucosa found in the GI tract? (1)
    only in the stomach
  9. Where is absorptive mucosa found in the GI tract? (1)
    entire small intestine
  10. Where is absorptive/protective mucosa found in the GI tract? (1)
    entire large intestine
  11. 3 functions of the tongue?
    manipulation of food, speech, sensory function of taste
  12. The intrinsic muscles of the tongue are... (3)
    longitudinal, vertical, horizontal
  13. 4 type of papillae.
    filiform, fungiform, circumvallate (gustatory), folliate
  14. The function of the esophagus.
    convey food from the oral cavity to the stomach
  15. What are the 3 general layers of the esophagus? What are the subdivisions in the inner and outer layer?
    • 1. mucosa- epithelium and muscularis mucosa
    • 2. submucosa
    • 3. tunica muscularis- inner circular layer and outer longitudinal layer
  16. The epithelium in the esophagus is ______________.
    stratified squamous
  17. The submucosa of the esophagus contains _____________ to aid in lubrication; they are most prominent in the _________ and ___________ of the esophagus.
    seromucinous glands; upper and lower thirds
  18. What are the three zones of muscle of the esophagus (from mouth to stomach) in man and pigs?
    skeletal m., transitional zone (both), smooth m.
  19. In cats and horses, the esophagus is mostly __________ muscle?
  20. In dogs and ruminants, the esophagus is entirely ___________ muscle.
  21. At the junction of the esophagus with the stomach, the mucosa undergoes rapid transition b/w ______________ epithelium to ___________ epithelium.
    protective stratified squamous; tightly-packed glandular secretory
  22. Reflex of food from the stomach back to the esophagus is prevented by the _______________ at the ________________.
    physiological sphincter; gastro-esophageal junction
  23. Although the mucosa transitions at the gastro-esophageal junction, the ___________ and __________ are continuous.
    muscularis mucosa; submucosa
  24. The mucosa of the stomach folds to form _________; _________ in the mucosa open into the lumen via gastric pits.
    rugae; gastric glands
  25. In addition to the outer and inner longitudinal and circular muscular layers, the stomach has a _____________ muscular layer in the ___________.
    inner oblique; musculari propria
  26. The cardiac glands are part of a ______________ epithelium, which secretes...
    coulumnar; mucous
  27. What is the purpose of the mucous glands of the stomach?
    to protect from the acid produced by gastric glands
  28. The mucosa of the fundus and body of the stomach consists of _______, ________ glands that synthesize and secrete _________, which is made up of....
    straight; tubular; gastric juice; hydrochloric acid and pepsin
  29. Oxyntic gland cells are most numerous at the ___________ of gastric glands; they secrete _______. They are recognized by being large, ______ cells with a __________ nucleus.
    isthmus; acid; round; centrally-located
  30. What are the 4 parts of a gland (from lumen outward)?
    gastric pit/ foveolus, isthmus, neck, base of gland
  31. Chief cells are located at the __________ of gastric glands, and they are recognized by their __________, __________ nuclei and __________ cytoplasm. They secrete ___________.
    base; condensed, basally-located; strongly basophilic; pepsin
  32. Mucous cells cover the ______________ of gastric glands; they have ___________ on their surfaces and secrete ____________.
    luminal surface and in between oxyntic cells of the neck; microvilli; protective bicarbonate ions
  33. Argentaffin cells are _________ cells of gastric glands that are found in the _________ of the glands; they secrete ___________.
    endocrine; base; serotonin and other hormones
  34. Pyloric glands have _________ and are composed of primarily ____________ cells; they also contain 2 types of ________ cells, which include...
    very deep pits; mucous-secreting; endocrine; G cells and D cells.
  35. G cells of pyloric glands secrete _________; D cells of pyloric glands secrete _________.
    gastrin; somatostatin
  36. The protective gastric mucosal barrier is comprised of ____________ in the epithelium, a ___________ that is secreted by glands in the mucosa, and it is facilitated by ___________ from stem cells.
    tight junctions; mucous film/bicarbonate; epithelial regeneration
  37. The __________ marks a sharp transition at the gastroduodenal junction from ____________ mucosa of the stomach to __________ mucosa of the duodenum.
    pyloric sphincter; glandular; villous aborptive
  38. The duodenum is distinguished from the jejunum and ileum by the presence of __________ in the submucosa; these glands secrete _________ and their ducts empty into the _________ of _________.
    Brunner's glands; alkaline mucous; base; mucosal crypts
  39. The mucosa of the small intestine is modified by ________ and _________.
    villi; crypts
  40. The pyloric sphincter consists of a marked thickening of the ______________ of the ______________.
    circular layer; muscularis
  41. Intestinal epithelial cells that function in absorption.
  42. Enterocytes of the intestinal epithelium are _________, __________ cells with surface ___________.
    tall, columnar; microvilli
  43. The microvilli of enterocytes make up the _________ of the small intestine.
    brush border
  44. The glycolax of of enterocyte microvilli provides what 2 functions?
    protection against autodigestion and acts as a site for adsorption of pancreatic digestive enzymes
  45. Chylomicrons assembled in enterocytes pass first into the _______________ then across the basement membrane into the ____________.
    intercellular clefts; core of the microvillus
  46. Goblet cells of the small intestine are distributed among _________ and produce ________ for ________.
    enterocytes; mucin; lubrication
  47. Lymphocytes are commonly found in the _____________, where they play a role in ___________ of the small intestine.
    intercellular clefts b/w enterocytes; immunological protection
  48. The villar core of small intestinal epithelium consists of... (4)
    lamina propria, central lacteal, smooth muscle cells, capillary plexus
  49. The central lacteal is located at the ______ of each ________, and it transports absorbed _________ to the _________ then to __________ and ultimately to the _________.
    center; villus (small intestine); fat; lymphatic system; thoracic duct; vena cava
  50. The capillary plexus of the small intestine lie _____________, and it is a means of transportation for absorbed __________ and __________ to the ________ and ultimately to the ________.
    directly beneath the basement membrane of the villi; glucose; amino acids; portal vein; liver
  51. The primitive crypt cells of the small intestine differentiate into... (2)
    mature enterocytes and goblet cells
  52. Paneth cells are found at the ________ of ________ of the _________; they are distinguished by their ________________. They secrete... (2)
    base; crypts; small intestine; prominent, eosinophilic apical granules; lysozyme and antimicrobial peptides
  53. The neuroendocrine cells of the small intestine secrete __________________ that regulate _______________ and _____________.
    locally-acting hormones; gastrointestinal motility; secretion
  54. With Coeliac disease, there is ________ and ___________.
    inflammation; excessive recruitment of WBCs
  55. Follicle-associated epithelium contains __________, which are targets of entry into the intestine for certain pathogens.
    microfold cells (M cells)
  56. Closely aggregated nodules of lymphoid tissue in the walls of the small intestine especially in the ileum that partially or entirely disappear in advanced life and in typhoid fever become the seat of ulcers which may perforate the intestines.
    Peyer's patch
  57. 4 factors that increase the surface area of the small intestine.
    mucosal cylinder, folds of kerkring, villi, microvilli
  58. Transverse folds of the mucosa of the distal duodenum and prominent in the jejunum and ileum.
    plica circulares (folds of kerckring)
  59. The villi of the small intestine is longest in the ___________ and gets shorter toward the ________.
    duodenum; ileum
  60. Lymphoid tissue of the small intestine gets more prominent in the _________ and is fairly inconspicuous in the _________.
    ileum; duodenum
  61. The proportion of goblet cells in the epithelium of the small intestine increases ________.
  62. Plicae circulares are most prominent and numerous in the ___________ and ___________ and are generally absent in the __________ and _____________.
    jejunum; proximal ileum; proximal duodenum; distal ileum
  63. At the ileocecal junction, there is an abrupt transition in the lining of the _____________ from ______________ to _____________.
    ileocecal valve; small intestinal villiform; glandular large intestinal form
  64. The ileocecal valve consists of a thickened extension of the ___________ and _____________ are found in the mucosa.
    muscularis propria; large lymphoid peyer's patches
  65. 3 functions of the large intestine.
    absorbs water from ingesta, form stools, stores feces before elimination
  66. The proximal segment of the large intestine that connects with the ileum and hosts a large number of bacteria to break down plant materials.
  67. 2 functions of the colon.
    longest part of the large intestine that removes water, some nutrients and electrolytes from partially digested food
  68. 2 functions of the rectum.
    temporary storage of feces, contains stretch receptors that stimulate the desire to defecate
  69. The mucosa of the large intestine does NOT have ________; there are _________ and __________.
    villi; long, wide crypts; prominent muscularis mucosae
  70. The large intestinal crypts are _______, ________ glands that extend from the __________ to the _________.
    straight, tubular; mucosa; muscularis mucosae
  71. The mucosa of the colon consists of... (2)
    absorptive cells and mucous-secreting goblet cells
  72. The goblet cells of the colon are important for...
    protecting the mucosa from trauma of passing dehydrated feces
  73. The rectum has more numerous _________ than the rest of the large intestine.
    goblet cells
  74. The colon and cecum have ____________ epithelium, but it transitions to _________ epithelium in the rectum. At the rectoanal junction, it becomes ____________ epithelium.
    simple columnar; noncornified stratified squamous; keratinized stratified squamous
  75. At the anal sphincter, the stratified squamous epithelium of the rectum undergoes a gradual transition to skin containing ___________ and ___________.
    sebaceous glands; apocrine sweat glands
  76. Columns of Morgagni are longitudinal folds present only in the ________.
  77. What additional function does the ruminant stomach have that the monogastric stomach doesn't?
    absorptive function
  78. In true ruminants, young animals' stomach is primarily ____________ and adults' stomach is primarily ____________.
    abomasum; rumen
  79. Fermentation vat of the ruminant stomach that contains a large number of bacteria and protozoa.
  80. The rumen functions to produce ____________ and it functions in __________ across the _____________.
    volatile fatty acids; absorption across keratinized squamous epithelium
  81. The reticulum and omasum function in ____________.
    mechanical dissociation
  82. The abomasum functions in ___________.
    enzymatic digestion
  83. Papillae are present in the ruminant _________ and are covered by __________ _______, ________ epithelium.
    rumen; keratinized stratified, squamous
  84. 6 layers of the ruminal epithelium from lumen outward. (keep in mind what type of epithelium is has)
    stratum corneum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, stratum basale, basement membrane, lamina propria
  85. The surface of the reticulum has ___________ and ___________.
    primary and secondary folds
  86. The omasal surface of the ruminant stomach is lined with _________, but like the rumen, it is covered by ________.
    laminae; papillae
  87. The abomasum of ruminants has ________ and _________, similar to the monogastric stomach.
    oxyntic glands; pyloric glands
  88. Contrast true ruminant vs. camelid digestion. (3)
    true ruminants utilize microbial fermentation, regurgitation, and belching; camelids have increased particulate retention and decreased metabolizable energy requirements
  89. The llama stomach is unique in that it contains ___________ that secrete ___________.
    saccules; mucous bicarbonate
  90. There is a region of _______ secretion at the proximal end of the camelid stomach.
  91. True ruminants produce ________ and _________ as a product of their digestion process.
    CO2 and CH4