Histo- Hepatobiliary.txt

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Author:
Mawad
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291381
Filename:
Histo- Hepatobiliary.txt
Updated:
2014-12-12 14:01:31
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histo liver
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vetmed
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  1. Blood flow into the liver sinusoids comes from terminal branches of the...
    hepatic artery and portal vein
  2. Polygonal or polyhedral cell with a central round diploid nucleus with 1+ nucleoli and abundant pale eosinophilic cytoplasm (sometimes multinucleated).
    hepatocytes
  3. What contributes to the hepatocyte cytoplasmic eosinophilia that is evident under light microscopy?
    mitochondria, glycogen
  4. In the sinusoidal domain, there are _____________ that project into the ______________ to increase hepatocyte surface area and exchange.
    irregular microvilli; Space of Disse
  5. The biliary canalicular domain of the plasma membrane contain ___________ that secrete bile.
    microvilli
  6. The sinusoids of the liver are lined by ______, ____________, ___________ endothelium that lacks a ___________.
    thin, discontinuous, fenestrated; basement membrane
  7. Hepatic macrophages.
    Kupffer cells
  8. Kupffer cells have _______-shaped nuclei and __________ processes.
    kidney (reniform); stellate
  9. Kupffer cells function in the phagocytosis of...(4)...and the release of... (2)
    particulates, senescent cells, microbes, and endotoxin; cytokines for vasodilation and inflammation.
  10. Where are Kupffer cells located in the liver?
    lumen of sinusoids, periportal regions
  11. Short-lived and continuously-replaced immune cells of the liver that resemble large granular lymphocytes with natural killer activity.
    Pit cells
  12. Pit cell function in ____________.
    innate immunity
  13. Name given to the discontinuous line of hepatocytes immediately adjacent to the portal tract.
    limiting plate
  14. ______ cells of the sinusoids are never seen with light microscopy.
    Pit cells
  15. Pit cells are located in the...
    sinusoid lumen
  16. ____________make up the liver parenchyma.
    Hepatocytes
  17. Ito cells are located in the _________.
    Space of Disse
  18. Ito cells are identifiable by _____________; their function is to produce ______________ and regulate _________; they uptake and release _______, and they are a source of ___________.
    fat vacuoles; extracellular matrix; sinusoidal blood flow; vitamin A; hepatocyte growth factor for regeneration
  19. Space of Disse is synonymous for _________.
    perisinusoidal space
  20. How do the sinusoidal endothelial cells of the liver ensure rapid rapid exchange b/w blood and the persinusoidal space?
    fenestrated endothelium and no basement membrane
  21. Where are microvilli modifications present in the liver?
    Project into space of Disse in the sinusoidal domain of plasma membrane, bile-secreting microvilli in bile canalicular domain of the plasma membrane [OF HEPATOCYTES]
  22. Where are microvilli present in the gall bladder?
    mucosa- simple columnar epithelium
  23. The extracellular matrix of the connective tissue stroma of the liver is composed mainly of _______________; its second most adbundant component is ___________.
    type I collagen; type III collagen (reticulin)
  24. Capsule composed of collagenous tissue that covers the outer surface of the liver.
    Glisson's capsule
  25. Glisson's capsule is covered by _________ from the ________.
    mesothelium; peritoneum
  26. The connective tissue stroma extend into the ________ around _______ and _________.
    parenchyma; central veins; portal tracts
  27. The conventional extracellular matrix of the connective tissue stroma stains with ___________.
    Masson's trichrome
  28. The reticulin framework the the connective tissue stroma stains with ___________.
    silver impregnation
  29. A portal tract consist of ___(3)____ surrounded by ________; it also contains ________ and _________.
    hepatic artery, portal vein, and bile duct; type I collagen; lymphatics; autonomic nerves
  30. Space between the limiting plate and connective tissue of a portal tract.
    Space of Mall
  31. The portal vein ___________; the hepatic artery delivers _____________; these mix in ____________, thus, blood delivered to hepatocytes is _____________.
    venous blood from the abdominal viscera; oxygenated blood; low pressure sinusoids; poorly oxygenated
  32. Blood flows in the ________ direction and bile and lymph.
    opposite
  33. Venous drainage of the liver occurs through the _________.
    central vein
  34. Lymph from the liver is formed in the __________; then, it travels to the ___________, which is located between the _________ and the __________.
    Space of Disse; Space of Mall; limiting plate; portal tracts
  35. Lymph flows in the same direction as ________ and the opposite direction as ________.
    bile; blood
  36. Blood from terminal branched of the portal vein and hepatic artery goes between __________ in the ___________; these converge to drain into the ___________, which drains into the _______ , and subsequently __________,and ultimately the __________.
    hepatocytes; sinusoids; terminal hepatic venule; sublobular vein; hepatic vein; caudal vena cava
  37. The Space of Disse is located between the _________ and the _________; aka the __________.
    sinusoid lining cells; hepatocytes; perisinusoidal space
  38. With the Keirnan's or Classic Lobule structural arrangement, there is a _________ around the _________ bordered at the periphery by multiple portal areas; radiating out from the central vein, the zones are...
    hexagon; central vein; portal, midzonal, centrilobular
  39. The Acinus of Rappaport structural arrangement is based on __________; there is an _______ around the central/short axis composed of ____________ and ____________ radiating from adjacent portal areas bordered at the periphery by ___________.
    blood flow; oval; terminal hepatic arterioles and portal venules; two central veins
  40. [Acinus of Rappaport] Acinar zone 1 is the __________ zone; it is closest to the ____________; it is the principal site of... (4)
    periportal zone; arterial and portal inflow; gluconeogenesis, protein synthesis, aerobic metabolism, lipid/cholesterol metabolism
  41. The _________ [Acinus of Rappaport] zone is the most susceptible to direct-acting toxicants, and it is the first to regenerate.
    acinar zone 1/periportal zone
  42. [Acinus of Rappaport] Acinar zone 2 is the ______ zone; it has considerable _________ potential because it contains the most _________.
    midzonal; regenerative; pluripotent stem cells
  43. [Acinus of Rappaport] Acinar Zone 3 is the ________ zone, and it is the closest to ________________; it is the major site of... (3), but it iss the most susceptible to ______.
    periacinar/perivenous/centrilobular; cardiovascular outflow; glycolysis, lipogenesis, and biotransformation; hypoxia
  44. With the portal lobule drainage arrangement, there is a _______ around ____________ bordered at periphery with _______ from _____________; it is the least commonly used scheme.
    triangle; portal tract; central veins; 3 hepatic lobules
  45. Xenobiotic metabolism is ____________; what are the 2 phases?
    biotranformation; Phase I- degradation, Phase II- activation of the conjugating agent and synthesis of the conjugate
  46. The ultimate goal of biotransformation is to make a _____________ that can be _____________.
    less toxic metabolite; excreted by the kidney or in stool
  47. Describe the process of heme breakdown.
    Heme -->biliverdin --> unconjugated bilirubin (bound to albumin) --> conjugated bilirubin --> urobilinogen (deconjugated form)
  48. How does the liver contribute to the metabolism of lipids and cholesterol.
    ir produces apoproteins and lipoproteins to remove and transport cholesterol from the tissues
  49. During lipid metabolism, free fatty acids from the diet or adipose tissue are taken up by ___________; they are released as ___________ by association with...
    hepatocytes; triglycerides; apoproteins and lipoproteins produced by the liver.
  50. The mucosa of the gall bladder is lined by ____________ epithelium with _________ modifications; the nucleus is ______-located.
    simple columnar; microvilli; basally
  51. The lamina propria of the gall bladder contains _________ and _________, and sometimes __________.
    lymphocytes; plasma glands; mucous glands
  52. The luminal folds of the gall bladder contain the ______ of the ___________.
    core; lamina propria
  53. Mucous glands that extend into the muscularis externa of the gall bladder.
    Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses
  54. In locations where it is attached to the liver, the gall bladder is lined by _________; otherwise, the lining is ________.
    adventitia; serosa
  55. The ___________ of the gall bladder does not form a distinct layer.
    muscularis externa
  56. 3 main functions of the gall bladder.
    secretes mucosubstances from epithelial cells and neck mucous glands, stores bile from the liver, concentrates bile
  57. The presence of lipid in the duodenum promotes the secretion of ___________ to stimulate _________ release from the gall bladder
    cholecystokinin; bile
  58. Pancreatic polypeptide stimulates ______ of the gall bladder; somatostatin __________ of the gall bladder.
    relaxation; inhibits emptying

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