Histo- Integument.txt

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Mawad
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291382
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Histo- Integument.txt
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2014-12-12 14:01:56
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histo integument
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vetmed
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  1. The epidermis is made of ___________ _____________, ____________ epithelium.
    keratinized stratified, squamous
  2. What are the 5 components of the dermis?
    • thick, fibrous, elastic connective tissue
    • vessels
    • nerves SALT
    • adnexae
  3. The hypodermis and subcutaneous layers are made up of ______________.
    fibroadipose tissue
  4. Stratified squamous epithelial cells of the epidermis that are arranged in 4 distinct layers.
    keratinocytes
  5. The stratum basale consists of the ___________, ___________, ____________ epithelial cells that are attached to the basement membrane; as they proliferate, the daughter cells....
    undifferentiated, basophilic, columnar-cuboidal; are pushed up toward the surface and undergo maturation
  6. The stratum spinosum is comprised of __________, __________, _________ cells that are __________-shaped; they have prominent ______________, which are ____________.
    differentiating, maturing, basal; polyhedral; intercellular junctions; desmosomes
  7. Desmosomes are anchored to the cell membrane by ____________.
    tonofilaments
  8. The stratum granulosum is comprised of ________, _________, __________ cells with prominent __________.
    differentiating, maturing, squamous prickle cells; cytoplasmic granules
  9. What are the 2 types of granules in the stratum granulosum?
    keratohyaline and lamellar granules
  10. The lamellar granules of the stratum granulosum are made of __________ that is extruded into extracellular spaces to serve as an ___________.
    phospholipid; intercellular cement
  11. The stratum corneum is made up of ________, _______, ________ cells; it consists of intracellular ___________ that are cross-linked in an amorphous matrix.
    thin, squamous, dead (kornified); keratin filaments
  12. The stratum corneum is __________.
    hydrophobic
  13. The thickness of the epidermis varies with __________ and ___________
    physiological demands of the region; pathological processes
  14. What are the 3 types of accessory cells of the epidermis?
    melanocytes, langerhans cells, merkel cells
  15. Accessory cells that are pigment generators in the epidermis; dendritic (clear) cells.
    melanocytes
  16. The accessory cells of the epidermis that are macrophages; dendritic (clear) cells.
    langerhans cells
  17. Most melanin is contained in __________.
    keratinocytes (NOT melanocytes)
  18. Melanocytes in the ___________ of the epidermis make __________, which is then.....
    stratum basale; melanin; injected into keratinocytes
  19. Substance that quenches UV light, scavenges free radicals, and prevents oxidative damage in the epidermis.
    melanin
  20. Langerhans cells in the ___________ that trap _______ and present them to ________ in the ________; part of SALT.
    stratum basale; antigens; T lymphocytes; dermis
  21. Intraepidermal lymphocytes are __________, which moderate cell-mediated immunity.
    T lymphocytes
  22. What are the 2 functions of the epidermis?
    prevents loss of internal resources, protects body from external agents
  23. Meshwork of fibers in a gelatin-like solution extracellular fluid, cells, and glycosaminoglycans.
    dermis
  24. The dermis is a thick layer of _____________.
    fibrous connective tissue
  25. What are the 3 levels of dermal circulation?
    SubQ/ deep dermal, cutaneous plexus, papillary plexus
  26. The SubQ/ deep dermal circulation consists of __(2)__; the cutaneous plexus supplies __(2)__; the papillary plexus is beneath the ________ and is composed of __(2)__.
    arteries and veins; follicles and adnexa; epidermis; capillaries and venules
  27. The _________ regulate blood flow to the surface of the skin, which also serves the purpose to regulate _________.
    A-V anastomoses; temperature
  28. When the A-V anastomoses b/w the cutaneous dermal circulation and papillary plexus are closed, ...
    blood does not travel superficially, therefore, heat is conserved in cold weather.
  29. When the A-V anastomoses b/w the cutaneous dermal circulation and papillary plexus are opened, ...
    blood travels superficially to release heat; therefore, the body temperature is lowered in hot weather
  30. Septic thrombosis and dermal ischemic necrosis.
    diamond skin disease
  31. Fibroblasts secrete ____________ and _____________.
    collagen fibers; glycosaminoglycans (polymers that fill the spaces b/w fibers)
  32. What are the 3 types of cells that are part of SALT (skin-associated lymphoid tissues)?
    T cells, langerhans cells, MΦ's
  33. The reactive cells in the dermis.
    mast cells
  34. 6 functions of the dermis.
    tensile strength, epidermal support/maintenance, adnexal support, immunity, storage (fluids, electrolytes), thermoregulation
  35. What are the 3 zones of hair/feather follicles?
    infundibulum (opens to surface), isthmus (middle zone), lower zone (hair bulb)
  36. In a hair/feather follicle, the ______ is where stem cells are located and the _______ is the growth zone.
    isthmus; lower zone
  37. What are the 4 layers of epidermis around a hair follicle?
    external root sheath, internal root sheath, hair shaft, hair bulb
  38. What are the 3 divisions of the hair shaft of a hair follicle?
    cuticle (thin cover), cortex (thick wall), medulla (central, sometimes hollow, area)
  39. During hair growth, __________ proliferate from the hair bulb and form a rolled cylinder of _________, __________ epithelial cells; the _________ dissolves at the level of the sebaceous duct, and _________ is injected into basal cells and carried up the hair shaft.
    keratinocytes; stratified, squamous; internal root sheath; melanin
  40. The ____________ invaginates into the hair bulb of a hair follicle.
    dermal papilla (papillary plexus)
  41. 3 functions of hair/feathers?
    thermal barrier, physical barrier, photo-protective
  42. Tactile hairs that come from a modified hair follicle set in a blood-filled sinus and the trabecular meshwork in the sinus is extensively innervated.
    vibrissae
  43. Sebaceous glands function by ___________ secretion, which means they empty into follicles by ____________ from the basal cell layer, _________ into lipid-containing cells, and __________ of the entire cell.
    holocrine; proliferation; differentiation; death
  44. Sebaceous glands release _________, a lipid that coats the epidermis to decreased water absorption and serves as an antimicrobial.
    sebum
  45. Sweat glands consist of _________ tubules lined by __________ epithelium; they function by _________, meaning the cells do not proliferate, differentiate, or die; _________ glands empty into follicles and _________ gland empty directly onto the skin surface.
    coiled; cuboidal; merocrine; apocrine; eccrine
  46. Smooth muscle attached to follicles and epidermis that contracts to increase the angle of the hair and squeezes the follicles and glands.
    arrector pili muscle
  47. The deepest layer of the integument that lies beneath the dermis; the thickness varies.
    hypodermis/subcutaneous
  48. The hypodermis/subcutaneous layer is made up of ____________, which is _________ filled with ________.
    fibroadipose tissue; adipocytes; lipid
  49. What are the 3 functions of the hypodermis?
    thermal regulation, physical protection, fat storage
  50. The digit has ________ __________ epithelium; the fingernail is made of a ___________.
    stratified, squamous; dense keratinized plate.
  51. In a claw, the nail plate and dermis cover the ________ of the distal phalanx.
    ungual process
  52. Infection around and in the nailbed.
    paronychia
  53. The hoof wall is the ___________ divided into 3 layers, which are...
    stratum corneum; stratum externum, stratum medium, stratum internum
  54. Where does each layer of the hoof wall stratum corneum grow from?
    • stratum externum- growth from coronary band
    • stratum medium- growth from coronary band
    • stratum internum- growth from dermal laminae
  55. Interdigitating finers of the hoof dermis and epidermis that have many secondary fingers to allow tight binding of the hoof wall to the dermis.
    dermal laminae
  56. ____________ grow out from the epidermal laminae of the stratum internum of the hoof wall and fuse with the outer layers of the dermal laminae.
    keratinocytes
  57. Inflammation b/w the dermal laminae with necrosis and separation of keratinocytes.
    laminitis
  58. The pinna is skin with adnexae stretch over a ____________.
    cartilage core
  59. Skin rolled into a hollow tube supported by cartilage, connecting the pinna to the ear drum.
    auditory meatus
  60. The external auditory meatus contains ____________ and ____________ glands that makes a combined waxy secretory product with antimicrobial properties, called ___________.
    modified apocrine sweat glands (cerumucinous); sebaceous; cerumen
  61. The conjunctiva of the eyelid consists of an inner smooth _________, _________ epithelium with _______.
    stratified, columnar; goblet cells
  62. Sebaceous glands in the tarsal plate of the eye that open through a common duct at the lid margin.
    meibomian (tarsal) glands
  63. Granuloma of the meibomian (tarsal) gland.
    chalazion (sty)
  64. Ptosis is indicative of....
    sympathetic nerve damage
  65. Modified sebaceous glands of the perineum.
    perianal (hepatoid) glands
  66. Cystic diverticula of the anus that are lined by apocrine glands.
    anal sacs
  67. What is the most common disorder of the perineum?
    perianal gland adenoma

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