Histo- Renal.txt

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Author:
Mawad
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291383
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Histo- Renal.txt
Updated:
2014-12-12 14:02:23
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histo renal
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vetmed
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  1. The canine kidney is __________ with a _________ cortex.
    unipapillary; smooth
  2. The feline kidney is ______ and has a _______ cortex due to the presence of ________; the cat kidney is normally _______ [color].
    unipapillary; rough; subcapsular veins; yellow
  3. The equine kidney is _______ with _____ pelvic recesses; the right kidney is ________.
    unpapillary; 2; heart-shaped
  4. The porcine kidney is ________ with the pelvis dividing into _______, which then divide further; it has a _______ cortex.
    multipapillary; 2 major calyces; smooth
  5. The bovine kidney has a _________ outer contour; it is _________ with no true _______; the _____ branches to drain each papilla.
    lobulated; multipapillary; renal pelvis; ureter
  6. The avian kidney is ______ and "hidden" in a deep recess along the _________.
    multilobulated; dorsal musculature
  7. Tubules that run toward the medulla that are centered around a collecting duct.
    medullary ray
  8. A pyramid and the overlying cortex.
    Lobe
  9. The tip of the renal pyramid.
    Papilla
  10. The "cups" of the papilla/pyramid.
    calyx
  11. Sector of a single lobe centered on a single medullary ray.
    lobule
  12. The vasculature of the kidney is responsible for...
    maintaining hemodynamic homeostasis
  13. The glomerular compartment of the kidney is responsible for __________.
    permselectivity
  14. The tubular compartment of the kidney is responsible for....
    excretion and resorption (water conservation)
  15. The interstitium of the kidney is responsible for...
    bringing resorbed molecules back to systemic circulationn
  16. What nephron structures are located in the cortex of the kidney? (8)
    glomerulus, bowman's space (surrounded by Bowman's capsule), proximal convoluted tubule, straight portion (pars recta) of the proximal convoluted tubule---- (into medulla)------> loop of henle ascending thick limb, distal convoluted tubule (containing macula densa), connecting tubule, cortical collecting duct
  17. What nephron structures are located in the medulla of the kidney?(4)
    loop of henle descending limb, loop of henle ascending thin limb---(back out to cortex--> medullary collecting duct, papillary duct
  18. Nephrons in which the glomerulus is located near the cortico-medullary junction and the loop of henle dives deep into the medulla.
    juxtamedullary nephrons
  19. Nephrons in which the glomerulus is in the outer cortex and the loop of henle does not extend deep into the medulla.
    cortical nephrons
  20. Describe the blood flow of the kidney.
    renal a. --> interlobar a. --> arcuate a. --> interlobular a. --> afferent arteriole --> glomerular capillaries --> efferent arteriole --> peritubular capillaries --> interlobular v. --> arcuate v. --> interlobar v. --> renal v.
  21. In juxtamedullary nephrons, the peritubular capillaries drain to the ____________ and _________ before the interlobular v.
    descending vasa recta --> ascending vasa racta
  22. What are the 4 components of the glomerular loop?
    podocytes, endothelial cells, mesangial cells, parietal epithelium
  23. Glomerular filtration is driven by...
    differences in hydrostatic and oncontic pressure, permselectivity
  24. Glomerular filtration is based on...
    molecular charge, molecular size, and concentration gradients
  25. The capillary endothelium is _______ and covered by ________.
    fenestrated; glycocalyx
  26. Podocytes have _________ that are separated by __________.
    foot processes; slit diaphragms
  27. Terminally differentiated epithelial cells that maintain the structural and functional integrity of the glomerulus.
    podocytes
  28. Podocytes have _________ that attach to the _________; they are separated by ________, creating a _________.
    interdigitating foot processes; glomerular basement membrane; slit diaphragms; size-selective barrier
  29. The podocytes produce ________ to maintain ______ health.
    VEGF; endothelial cell
  30. The glomerular basement membrane is the fusion of the basement membranes synthesized by the.....
    endothelial cell and the podocyte
  31. The glomerular basement membrane is _________-charged.
    negatively
  32. The glycocalyx that covers the glomerular endothelial cells is _______-charged.
    negatively
  33. The apical cell membrane of the podocytes are __________-charged.
    negatively
  34. Cells that maintain the structural integrity of the glomerular tuft and modify glomerular perfusion through smooth muscle-like activity.
    mesangial cells
  35. Mesangial cells modify glomerular perfusion by responding to __________.
    vasoactive stimuli
  36. Mesangial cells synthesize and break down _______, produce and secrete _________, and have some _______ properties.
    extracellular matrix; cytokines; phagocytic
  37. Glomerular filtration depends partly on hydrostatic pressure, which is...; osmotic pressure include...
    glomerular hydrostatic pressure versus capsular hydrostatic pressure (Bowman's capsule); blood versus capsular filtrate
  38. Permselectivity of glomerular filtration is controlled by...
    fenestrated endothelium, negatively-charged glomerular basement membrane, podocytes and slit diaphragms
  39. How does the plasma ultrafiltrate flow through the nephron?
    glomerulus--> proximal convoluted tubule--> straight segment of the proximal tubule--> loop of Henle--> distal convoluted tubule--> connecting tubule--> cortical collecting duct--> medullary collecting duct
  40. 8 physiologic functions of the kidney.
    fluid homeostasis, maintain balance of small molecules, excretion of wastes/toxins, ion homeostasis, acid/base balance, stabilize BP, support EPO, support bone metabolism
  41. What does the kidney resorb? (4)
    amino acids/ proteins, glucose, electrolytes (Na+), water
  42. What do the tubules of the kidney eliminate/secrete? (3)
    cations (K+), certain metabolic byproducts (uric acid), xenobiotics
  43. Excretion=
    Filtration - Reabsorption + Secretion
  44. What do the kidneys actually excrete in the urine?
    urea, creatinine, bilirubins, hormone metabolites, xenobiotics
  45. What is the function of the proximal tubule? (2)
    resorb electrolytes and nutrients, return reabsorbed solutes to the blood
  46. What 4 mechanisms are utilized by the proximal convoluted tubule in order to perform its functions?
    active transport, co-transport, passive diffusion, pinocytosis
  47. Pinocytosis is a type of _________.
    active transport
  48. The proximal convoluted tubules are lined by _________ epithelium with ________ and _________.
    simple cuboidal; apical microvilli; apical vesicles
  49. What are the functions of the loop of Henle? (2)
    establish extracellular tonicity gradient to allow formation of hypertonic urine (aka.... concentrate urine)
  50. The loop of Henle utilizes a countercurrent exchanger in the ________ to concentrate the urine.
    vasa recta
  51. The thin limbs of the lop of henle are lined by ___________ epithelium.
    simple squamous
  52. The thick limb of the loop of henle is lined by _________ epithelium.
    simple cuboidal
  53. Unlike the proximal distal tubule, the loop of henle does NOT have ____________.
    microvilli brush border
  54. The ascending vasa recta s permeable to ______, NOT ________.
    water; solutes
  55. What are the functions of the distal convoluted tubule? (2)
    adjust ion and urea concentrations, maintain acid-base balance
  56. The distal convoluted tubule is lined by __________ epithelium and lacks a ________..
    simple cuboidal; microvilli brush border
  57. The function of the collecting ducts.
    to concentrate urine
  58. The collecting ducts are lined by __________ epithelium with short, sparse _______ and many ________.
    simple cuboidal; microvilli; mitochondria
  59. The juxtaglomerular apparatus is the site of physical contact b/w the ________ and _______ of the same nephron.
    distal tubule; renal corpuscule
  60. What is the function of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?
    sensor for urine ion concentration and blood pressure
  61. What other organ systems are impacted by the kidney? (7)
    cardiovascular, endocrine, bone, hematologic, GI, brain, pulmonary
  62. The kidneys modulate arterial pressure via _______.
    renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS)
  63. Cats have ________ in their tubular epithelial cells; dogs have a _______ epithelium in their collecting ducts; horses have _____ in their renal pelvis.
    fat; vacuolated; mucous glands
  64. The ureter has what layers? (4)
    outer circular smooth muscle, inner longitudinal smooth muscle, lamina propria, urothelium

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