Histo- Repro.txt

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Mawad
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291384
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Histo- Repro.txt
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2014-12-12 14:02:46
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histo reproduction
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  1. Local mesenchymal network representing undifferentiated gonads that forms the "skeleton" for the germ cells that migrate there.
    genital ridges
  2. Migration of germ cells is the movement from the ___________ to the ___________.
    placenta (allantois); genital ridge
  3. The sex-determining region Y (SRY) is found on the....
    short arm of the Y chromosome
  4. Without the SRY,...
    differentiation to the female gonad will take place (because no SRY= no Y chromosome)
  5. When testicular development occurs, the ___________ of the primordia develops and the __________ atrophies; is thi a hormone-dependent phenomenon? If so, what hormones are involved?
    mesonephric duct (Wolffian duct); paramesonephric duct; yes! testosterone and paramesonephric inhibitory hormone (Mullerian inhibitory substance)
  6. When ovarian development occurs, the ____________ of the primordia develops and the ___________ atrophies; is this a hormone-dependent phenomenon? If so, what hormones are involved?
    paramesonephric duct; mesonephric duct; no! It is hormone-independent
  7. Th secretion of testosterone from __________ and paramesonephric inhibitory hormone from ____________ induce the differentiation of the ___________ and _____________.
    leydig cells; Sertoli cells; Wolffian body and mesonephric ducts
  8. Development of the ovarian follicle is primarily directed by... (2)
    follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and lutenizing hormone (LH)
  9. What is the sequence of follicular development?
    • 1. Primordial follicle
    • 2. Primary follicle
    • 3. Secondary follicle
    • 4. Tertiary follicles
  10. Primordial follicles contain a ________ surrounded by a single layer of ______________.
    primary oocyte; flattened follicular cells
  11. Primary follicles contain a __________, the follicular cells become more ______ than in the primordial follicle, and these follicular cells are now known as ___________.
    primary oocytes; cuboidal; granulosa cells
  12. Basement membrane in the primary follicle that separates the proliferating granulosa (follicular) cells from the primary oocyte.
    zona pellucida
  13. The organized stromal cells around primary follicles.
    theca cells
  14. Secondary follicles begin to develop spaces between __________ that coalesce to form a large space called the _________.
    granulosa cells; follicular antrum
  15. In the secondary follicle, the stromal cells surrounding the follicle form two layers:
    theca interna (larger, rounded cells) and theca externa (flattened, fibroblast-like cells)
  16. Large, pre-ovulatory follicles which bulge from the surface of the ovary.
    Graafian (tertiary, mature) follicles
  17. Once the follicular antrum is formed in the secondary follicle, it becomes the ___________, and the oocyte is surrounded by granulosa cell remnants known as the ________.
    Graafian (tertiary) follicle; cumulus oophorus
  18. The cells of the cumulus oophorus immediately adjacent to the oocyte.
    corona radiata
  19. The cortex aspect of the ovary is covered by _________ epithelium during development, which changes to _________ epithelium with age.
    cuboidal; squamous
  20. The cortical parenchyma of the ovary is composed of... (3)
    follicles, interstitial cells, and collagenous connective tissue stroma
  21. The ovarian medulla contains... (5)
    arteries, veins, lymphatics, nerves, rete ovarii embedded in a loose collagenous matrix
  22. Cords of cells found in the ovarian medulla.
    rete ovarii
  23. How is the horse ovary different from other species?
    follicular development takes place in the region corresponding to the medulla (as opposed to the cortex); a concavity forms in the ovary (the ovulation fossa), which is where ovulation occurs
  24. The three parts of the uterine tube.
    infundibulum, ampulla, isthmus
  25. The mucosa of the uterine horn is composed of _________, __________ epithelium; in bovine and porcine, it is composed of _________, _________ epithelium.
    ciliated, columnar; ciliated, pseudostratified
  26. Uterus with two large uterine horns, a uterine body, and a single cervix; what species have this type of uterus?
    bicornate uterus; porcine, canine, feline, ruminant, equine
  27. Type of uterus with two uterine openings with corresponding cervices which open into a common vagina what type of animal has this uterus?
    duplex uterus; rodents
  28. What are the parts of the uterus?
    endometrium, myometrium, and perimetrium
  29. The endometrium is covered by _______, ________ epithelium, which rests on a loose __________; beneath the mucosa, _________________ extend from the lamina propria to the submucosa.
    simple, columnar; lamina propria; simple or branched tubular uterine glands
  30. What are the 3 histological layers of the endometrium?
    Stratum basalis, stratum spongiosum, stratum compactum
  31. The deepest layer of the endometrium that is adjacent to the myometrium.
    stratum basalis
  32. The broad intermediate layer of the endometrium that has a spongy appearance.
    stratum spongiosum
  33. The superficial layer of the endometrium that has a compact stromal appearance.
    stratum compactum
  34. The caruncles of the ruminant __________ has very few ___________.
    endometrium; glands
  35. What are the 3 layers of the myometrium of the uterus?
    inner circular layer of smooth muscle, intermediate prominent vascular layer, outer longitudinal smooth muscle layer
  36. The outermost layer of the uterus that is composed of loose connective tissue, lymphatics, and small arteries and veins.
    perimetrium
  37. The perimetrium of the uterus has an overlying __________ surface.
    mesothelial
  38. In the canine, the mucosa of the cervix is _________, __________ epithelium.
    stratified, squamous
  39. The bovine cervix contains large numbers of ____________.
    goblet-like cells
  40. The layers of the cervix are... (3)
    simple, columnar epithelium, lamina propria, muscularis (elastin fibers)
  41. What are the 4 layers of the vagina?
    mucosa, lamina propria, muscularis, adventitia
  42. In the cranial vagina, the adventitia is replaced by __________.
    serosa
  43. The mucosa of the vagina in all species (except the cow) is composed of ____________, ____________ epithelium; the bovine vagina is lined by ___________, ___________ epithelium with interspersed _______________.
    stratified, squamous; stratified, columnar; goblet cells
  44. In the canine, the vaginal mucosa undergoes changes throughout the estrus cycle:
    1. During anestrus, the vagina contains large numbers of __________, _________ epithelial cells with _________, __________ nuclei.
    2. During proestrus, the vagina contains _________, __________ epithelial cells with _________ nuclei.
    3. During estrus, the vagina contains ________, _________ epithelial cells with ______ nuclei.
    4. During diestrus, the vagina contains _________, ________ epithelial cells.
    • 1. non-cornified, round/oval; large, uniform
    • 2. large, cornifying; shrunken/absent
    • 3. large, cornified; no
    • 4. smaller, non-cornified
  45. 1. During anestrus in canines, a few ________ may be present in the vagina.
    2. During proestrus in canines, __________ are rare, but _________ and ________ may be present.
    3. During estrus in canines, __________ are reduced.
    4. During diestrus in canines, ________ are dominant and ________ are rare.
    • 1. neutrophils
    • 2. neutrophils; RBCs and bacteria
    • 3. RBCs
    • 4. neutrophils; RBCs
  46. The vestibule is lined by _________, _________ epithelium.
    stratified, squamous
  47. What are the layers of the vestibule? (4)
    • stratified squamous epithelium
    • lamina propria
    • tunica muscularis (inner circular and outer longitudinal smooth muscle layers)
  48. The outer longitudinal muscular layer of the vestibule is composed of what two muscles?
    constrictor vestibule and constrictor vulvae
  49. The vestibular glands are _____________ glands present in the __________.
    tubuloalveloar; constrictor vestibule muscle
  50. Germs cells residing in the developing testis.
    spermatogonia
  51. Terminally differentiated spermatogonia that result from successive rounds of mitosis in the developing testis.
    spermatozoa
  52. Spermatogenesis is quiescent until ____________, and the process takes place within the _____________.
    puberty; seminiferous tubules
  53. What are the 3 periods of spermatogenesis?
    mitotic, meiotic, metamorphic periods
  54. The mitotic phase of spermatogenesis results in ___________; the two types of spermatogonia that are present are.....
    increased numbers of spermatogonia; type A and type B spermatogonia
  55. Type A spermatogonia have _________, ________ nuclei with ___________ chromatin, _________ nucleoli; they maintain the ____________ of germ cells.
    large, round; condensed; peripheral; replicative pool
  56. Type B spermatogonia have ________ chromatin, ________ nucleoli, and no ____________; they eventually become __________.
    dispersed; central; nuclear vacuole; spermatozoa
  57. Formation of spermatocytes represents the ____________ stage of spermatogenesis.
    meiotic
  58. Primary spermatocytes are derived from ____________ and are _________ cells; these undergo the first meiotic division to become ________, which are _________.
    spermatogonium; diploid; haploid; secondary spermocytes
  59. Secondary spermatocytes are ________, and they enter the second meiotic division to become _________.
    haploid; spermatids
  60. The conversion of spermatids to spermatozoa.
    spermiogenesis
  61. During spermiogenesis, ______________ coalesce to form the _________, which expands to cover half the __________, forming the ___________.
    granules in the golgi; acrosomal vesicle; nucleus; acrosomal head cap
  62. During spermiogenesis, simultaneous to the formation of the acrosomal head cap, the ____(3)_____ migrate to the cytoplasm opposite the acrosomal cap; one _______ elongates to form the flagella, the _________interface with the _________ to form the neck, and the spermatid elongates.
    centrioles, mitochondria, and golgi remnants; centriole; centrioles; nucleus
  63. What are the 5 sections of a mature spermatozoon?
    head, neck (where the centrioles migrated), midpiece, principal piece, tail (end piece)
  64. ___________ from the anterior pituitary initiates spermiogenesis, and ____________ stimulates testosterone secretion, which is required for _________________.
    follicle stimulating hormone (FSH); luteinizing hormone (LH); spermatozoon maturation
  65. Describe the transport of sperm.
    seminiferous tubules --> tubuli recti --> rete testis --> efferent ducts --> epididymiss --> ductus deferens --> urethra
  66. The seminiferous tubules are lined by __________ epithelium.
    stratified
  67. Describe the layers of the stratified epithelium in the seminiferous tubules.
    (basal layer toward lumen) spermatogonia --> spermatocytes --> spermatids --> spermatozoa
  68. The supporting cells in the seminiferous tubules.
    sertoli cells (sustenacular cells)
  69. How do you differentiate the sertoli cells in seminiferous tubules from the spermatogonia?
    sertoli cells have more cytoplasm and an open chromatin pattern
  70. The structure of most accessory sex glands is arranged as...
    branched, tubular or tubuloalveolar pattern arranged in lobules, draining into the ductus deferens or urethra
  71. An enlargement of the terminal portion of the ductus deferens; does not have a specialized excretory duct.
    ampulla
  72. The ampulla consists of _____________ or ___________ glands; it is fully developed in ____(2)____; it is absent in ___(2); it is poorly developed in ________.
    branched tubular; tubuloalveolar; ruminants and horses; cats and dogs; swine
  73. The vesicular glands are composed of __________, __________ glandular epithelium; the excretory ducts are lined by _________, _________ epithelium.
    simple, columnar; stratified, columnar
  74. Vesicular glands are absent in ___________, but present in _____(3)_____.
    carnivores; horses, ruminants, and swine
  75. The body of the prostate is surrounded by a ____________, while the disseminate portion is embedded in a ______________, which extends along the...
    thick, collagenous capsule; loose collagenous matrix; dorsal aspect of the urethra until it extends laterally and joins the boy ventrally.
  76. The prostate gland is composed of ______________ structures lined by ___________ epithelium; the glands are __________.
    tubuloalveolar; low columnar to cuboidal; apocrine
  77. The body of the prostate is well-developed in ___(2)___; the disseminate portion is better developed in ___(2)___; ________ do not have a well-developed prostate.
    carnivores and horses; cattle and swine; rams
  78. Paired structures located dorsolaterally to the pelvic urethra in males.
    bulbourethral glands
  79. The bulbourethral glands are composed of __________ glands with _________ epithelium; the ducts of this gland are lined by __________, ___________ epithelium.
    tubuloalveolar; columnar; columnar, pseudostratified
  80. All domestic animals except for _________ have bulbourethral glands.
    dogs
  81. In the female avian reproductive tract, only the _________ and _________ are retained in the adult animal.
    left ovary; oviduct
  82. The avian ovary has a ________ and poorly-defined _________.
    cortex; medulla
  83. Avian ovarian follicles contain a ____________ with a single layer of _________ cells and a thick ____________ and _________; there is no _________ after ovulation.
    single oocyte; granulosa; theca interna; externa; corpus luteum formation
  84. The avian oviduct is divided into... (4)
    infundibulum, magnum, isthmus, and shell gland
  85. The extension of the avian oviduct with a vascularized mucosa lined by pseudostratified columnar epithelium.
    infundibulum
  86. The ________ deposits the egg white and is lined by __________ and _____________ epithelial cells in the avian oviduct.
    magnum; ciliated and non-ciliated columnar
  87. The magnum of the avian oviduct has a lamina propria containing ___________________ glands.
    branched tubular
  88. The __________ is responsible for formation of the shell membranes and is similar in structure to the ________ of the avian oviduct.
    isthmus; magnum
  89. The shell gland is the avian ________, but it does not allow for ________________; it is lined by _________________ epithelial cells with sporadic ___________.
    uterus; ova implantation; pseudostratified columnar; ciliated cells
  90. The avian vagina is similar in structure to the _______ and contains glands that store _____ in preparation for __________.
    shell gland; sperm; fertilization
  91. The mammary gland is composed of ______________ glands; the secretory portion of these glands is divided into one part composed of ___________ that form the __________ epithelium; the other part is composed of ___________ that form the __________.
    compound tubuloalveolar; columnar cells; alveolar; columnar cells; intralobular ducts
  92. The cells of the mammary glands typically exhibit ___________ secretion.
    apocrine
  93. _____________ drain into each intralobular duct, which drain into __________, several of which drain into and form a _________, which drains into a __________.
    One or two alveoli; lobular duct; lobar duct; lobe of the mammary gland
  94. A common chamber at the base of each mammary gland that receives milk from many lobar ducts.
    lactiferous sinus
  95. The constriction at the distal end of the lactiferous sinus, where the sinus enters the teat structure.
    annulus
  96. Most of the lactiferous sinus is lined by _____________ epithelium, but the canal is lined by ___________ epithelium.
    stratified columnar; stratified squamous
  97. In lactating mammary glands, the number of alveoli is ___________ than in non-lactating mammaries.
    far greater
  98. Inactive mammary glands have large amounts of ___________ replaced by __________ and _________; in these inactive glands, the ____________ remain intact.
    glandular tissue; fibrous connective tissue; adipose; larger ductal elements

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