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Angina symptoms may be absent or confused with what?
(HESI p. 343)
Older people may eat smaller meals. Why?
- Decreased contraction time for muscles in digestive system, so more time is needed for cardiac sphincter to open.
- Takes more time for food to be transmitted to stomach. Fullness sensation may occure before entire meal is consumed.
The number of enzymes in the small intestine is lower in older adults. How does this affect them?
- Simple sugars are absorbed more slowly = decreased efficiency of digestive process
- Contributes to chronic constipation!
How does the colon contribute to chronic constipation with age?
The smooth muscle content and the muscle tone of the wall of the colon decrease in older adults, resulting in slower intestinal motility.
What other factors contribute to chronic constipation other than digestion?
- psychological factors
- OTC laxatives
- decreased fluid intake
- decreased mobility
Why would an older person with incontinence be predisposed to loneliness?
they may seek isolation
Why would an older person be more sensitive to alcohol and caffeine?
- They inhibit ADH production
- (contributing to diffiulty w/ bladder control)
What are the 3 main drugs of particular importance in older adults and why?
- Penicillin, Tetracycline, Digoxin
- They are cleared from bloodstream primarily by kidneys & remain active longer in system b/c of decrease in renal fxn
- (total number of functioning glomeruli decreased til renal fxn reduced by 50%)
Four disease manifestations r/t Alzheimer's.
- Night wandering
- Aggressiveness or passiveness
- Failure to recognize family members
Abnormal, progressive clouding or opacity of the lens of the eyes.
A partial or complete white ring encircles the periphery of the cornea.
Increased intraocular pressure, usually bilaterally, leading to optic nerve damage.
Inability to discriminate tones.
What is the first to become diffiult to hear?
high-pitched tones (women's voices)
What conditions can mimic dementia?
- Acute infection (UTI),
- dehydration (electrolyte imbalance),
- metabolic DO
What is the task & goal of the integrity vs. despair stage?
- task is reminiscing to set one's life in order; to redefine self in relation to changed role.
- goal - to feel a sense of meaning rather than despair or bitterness that life was wasted
Older adults tend to have increased what? (Saunders)
- tendency twd constipation
- susceptibility for dehydration
- incidence of infection due to increased residual urine
- awakening after sleep onset
A common sign of infection.
How are med dosages prescribed?
1/3 to 1/2 normal adult dosage
Common sign of adverse rxn to med.
sudden change in mental status
If administering a suppository, what should you consider?
avoid inserting it immediately after remving from fridge; may take a while to dissolve b/c decreased core temp
Type of med that are not crushed.