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What is public speaking?
a form of presentation speaking that occurs when speakers address public audiences in community, government, and/or organizational settings
What is presentation speaking?
a speaker's use of verbal and nonverbal messages to generate meaning and establish relationships with audience members, who are usually present at the delivery of a presentation
What is rhetoric?
according to Aristotle, it is the ability to discover "in particular case what are the available means of persuasion," such as arguments based on logic, emotions, and/or speaker credibility
7 key elements and guiding principles
- 1. self
- 2. others
- 3. purpose
- 4. context
- 5. content
- 6. structure
- 7. expression
unaware of made mistakes, unaware that skills need to be learned
aware of made mistakes, causes anxiety, need to improve
working on improving, practice makes perfect
performance is effortless
ways to reduce speaking anxiety strategies
- relaxation exercises
- systematic desensitization
- cognitive restructuring
- a behavioral therapy developed by psychologist Joseph Wolpe to help clients cope with phobias and serious anxieties
- you're exposed to the phobia until you become desensitized to it
the process of changing or modifying worrisome, irrational, and nonproductive thoughts (cognitions) that cause speaking anxiety and replacing them with positive ones
personal statements that describe your motivation, focus, positive thoughts about yourself
a procedure that encourages people to think positively about speaking by taking them through the entire speech-making process
What are the four types of speeches? (purposes)
a speech that provides new information, explains complex terms and processes, and/or clarifies or corrects misunderstood information
a speech that attempts to change audience opinions and/or behaviors
a speech that tries to amuse, interest, divert, or "warm up" an audience
a speech that brings like-minded people together, creates social unity, builds goodwill, or celebrates by arousing audience emotions
difference between public and private purposes of your speech
- public purpose: the publicly stated purpose of your speech
- private purpose: the personal goal of your speech
refers to your ability to understand, respect, and adapt to audience members before and during your speech
how to adapt to an audience
- analyze the audience
- gather useful information about your audience demographics (why they are there, knowledge about the topic, opinions about the topic)
- recognize, interpret, and adapt to audience feedback before and during your speech
- enhances the likeliness of achieving the purpose of the speech
factors affecting credibility
- character (trustworthy, honest)
- competence (knowledgeable, fair)
- caring (warm, compassionate)
- charismatic (dynamic, stimulating) <- secondary component of credibility
What is an ethical speaker?
a good person, who gives credit, and speaks truthfully
What is an ethical audience?
thinks critically, and is open minded and responsive
Ways to develop credibility
- do a personal inventory
- be well prepared
- enhance your immediacy
- show that you care
Good speakers make ethical decisions about:
- Purpose: (if your private and public purposes are not aligned, you're standing on shaky ethical ground)
- The Audience: (you should tell them what they need to hear, not just what they want to hear)
- Credibility: (don't misrepresent yourself)
- Logistics: (don't use your surroundings as an excuse to manipulate or trick your audience)
What are logistics?
describes the strategic planning, arranging, and use of people, facilities, time, and materials relevant to your speech
What is an ideal maximum length for a speech?
When choosing the media for a speech, what four criteria should you consider?
- ease of use
- audience expectations
What should you adapt your speech to?
the nature of the occasion, the reason you are the speaker, the expectations of the audience, and the protocol of the occasion
What clothing should you wear?
should be comfortable, appropriate, and in a style that suits your personality and your speech's purpose
What are supporting materials?
- the ideas, information, and opinions that help explain/enhance arguments
- determine whether information is reliable and credible
- should seek unbiased facts and keep information in context
- should use consistent citation style
What types of supporting materials are there?
- facts: a verifiable observation, experience or event
- statistics: math that is concerned with collecting, summarizing and interpreting data
- testimony: statement or opinion someone said or wrote
- definition: clarifies the meaning of a word or concept
- analogies: comparison between two different things
- descriptions: creates a mental image of a scene
- examples: references to a specific case or instance
- stories: real stories about real people
Topical organization pattern
divides a large topic into related subtopics
time organization pattern
organizes information according to a set of logical steps, points in time, or calendar dates
problem-solution organization pattern
describes a harmful or difficult situation (the problem) and offers a plan to solve the problem
space organization pattern
arranges key points in terms of different locations
cause-effect organization pattern
either presents a cause or causes and the resulting effect or effects (cause to effect) or describes the effect or effects that result from a cause or causes (effect to cause)
scientific method organization pattern
follows a well established method of reporting scientific research
stories and examples organization pattern
uses dramatic and memorable stories and/or examples as the key points of the speech
comparison-contrast organization pattern
shows how two things are similar or different
memory aids organization pattern
uses easily remembered letters, words, or phrases to arrange key points
words/phrases that link one part of the speech to another, clarify how one idea relates to another, and identify how supporting material bolsters a key point
a connective phrase that reveals or suggests your key points in your introduction or describes how you are going to approach a key point in the body of the speech
a connective phrase that ends a section and helps to reinforce the section's important ideas
connective words, numbers brief phrases, or sentences that help you direct audience attention from one key point or section to another
short, often numerical connectives that tell or remind your listeners where you are and how far you have to go in a speech
- connect to audience, introduce points
- primacy effect (tendency to remember the first thing you heard)
- tell a story, introduce a statistic, establish a personal link
- avoid apologizing or over-promising
- recency effect (tendency to remember the last thing you heard)
- memorable, clear, brief, a summary of what was said
- quote someone, refer to the beginning, call for action
- Clear style
- Oral style
- Rhetorical style
- Eloquent style
- usually used to educate or explain
- short, simple, direct, plain language, limited stylistically
- resembles how we talk in everyday situations
- conversational, personal
- designed to influence, persuade, and inspire
- influential, persuasive, vivid words, intense language
- poetic and expressive language used to make a speaker's thoughts and feelings clear, inspiring, and memorable
- poetic, expressive language, repetition, artistic
What are the 3 parts of generating audience interest?
- power of stories
- use of humor
- advantages of immediacy
Power of stories
- simple stories to create lasting images
- stories should embody truth, purpose, audience, and occasion
Use of humor
- should be used to make a point
- needs to be well rehearsed and appropriate
Advantages of immediacy
develop immediacy by using both verbal and nonverbal strategies
Forms of delivery
- match speaking notes to style and situation
- index cards, outline, manuscript
Vocal clarity and correctness
- monitor, practice, and work on breath control, volume, rate, pitch, fluency, inflection
- speak slowly and improve articulation
- avoid excessive filler phrases
- effective and appropriate eye contact
- natural gestures and facial expressions
- confident posture and purposeful movement
Types of presentation aids
- powerpoints, videos, pie charts, maps, pictures, handouts
- make highlight points
- don't read from the presentation aid
What is the dividing line between informing and persuading?
the speaker's purpose
Classify your informative speech in terms of what?
whether its purpose is informatory (reports new information) or explanatory (clarifies difficult terms, explains quasi-scientific phenomena, or overcomes confusion and misunderstanding)
Effective informative speeches reflect strategic decisions related to what?
the seven elements of communication: purpose, audience, credibility, context, content, organization, and delivery
What should you do when the audience already agrees with you?
present new information, strengthen audience persuasion, excite emotions
What should you do when the audience disagrees with you?
set reasonable goals, find common ground, accept and adapt other opinions
What should you do when audience members are undecided?
gain their attention and provide relevant information
What should you do when audience members are unconcerned?
gain their attention and give them a reason to care
What should you do when audience members are adamantly undecided?
acknowledge the legitimacy of their opinions and strengthen your argument
What are the four types of proofs?
- logical (logos)
- emotional (pathos)
- personal (ethos)
- narrative (mythos)
Elaboration likelihood model of persuasion
helps determine whether a central or peripheral route to persuasion is needed
What are heuristics?
cognitive shortcuts that are correct often enough to be useful when making decisions
What is a public group presentation?
- occurs when one or more members of the group speak, relatively uninterrupted, to other group members or to an audience outside the group
- symposium, forum, or governance group
group members present short, uninterrupted speeches on different aspects of a topic for the benefit of the audience
frequently follows a panel discussion, gives audience opportunity to ask questions or comment
makes public policy decisions, public settings open to public
a well-coordinated presentation made by a cohesive groups of speakers who seek to influence an audience of listeners or key decision makers