COMM 204 Final Study Guide

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  1. What is public speaking?
    a form of presentation speaking that occurs when speakers address public audiences in community, government, and/or organizational settings
  2. What is presentation speaking?
    a speaker's use of verbal and nonverbal messages to generate meaning and establish relationships with audience members, who are usually present at the delivery of a presentation
  3. What is rhetoric?
    according to Aristotle, it is the ability to discover "in particular case what are the available means of persuasion," such as arguments based on logic, emotions, and/or speaker credibility
  4. 7 key elements and guiding principles
    • 1. self
    • 2. others
    • 3. purpose
    • 4. context
    • 5. content
    • 6. structure
    • 7. expression
  5. unconscious incompetence
    unaware of made mistakes, unaware that skills need to be learned
  6. conscious incompetence
    aware of made mistakes, causes anxiety, need to improve
  7. conscious competence
    working on improving, practice makes perfect
  8. unconscious competence
    performance is effortless
  9. ways to reduce speaking anxiety strategies
    • relaxation exercises
    • systematic desensitization
    • cognitive restructuring
    • affirmations
    • visualization
    • practice
  10. systematic desensitization
    • a behavioral therapy developed by psychologist Joseph Wolpe to help clients cope with phobias and serious anxieties
    • you're exposed to the phobia until you become desensitized to it
  11. cognitive restructuring
    the process of changing or modifying worrisome, irrational, and nonproductive thoughts (cognitions) that cause speaking anxiety and replacing them with positive ones
  12. affirmations
    personal statements that describe your motivation, focus, positive thoughts about yourself
  13. visualization
    a procedure that encourages people to think positively about speaking by taking them through the entire speech-making process
  14. What are the four types of speeches? (purposes)
    • informative
    • persuasive
    • entertainment
    • inspirational
  15. informative speech
    a speech that provides new information, explains complex terms and processes, and/or clarifies or corrects misunderstood information
  16. persuasive speech
    a speech that attempts to change audience opinions and/or behaviors
  17. entertainment speech
    a speech that tries to amuse, interest, divert, or "warm up" an audience
  18. inspirational speech
    a speech that brings like-minded people together, creates social unity, builds goodwill, or celebrates by arousing audience emotions
  19. difference between public and private purposes of your speech
    • public purpose: the publicly stated purpose of your speech
    • private purpose: the personal goal of your speech
  20. audience analysis
    refers to your ability to understand, respect, and adapt to audience members before and during your speech
  21. how to adapt to an audience
    • analyze the audience
    • gather useful information about your audience demographics (why they are there, knowledge about the topic, opinions about the topic)
    • recognize, interpret, and adapt to audience feedback before and during your speech
  22. ethos
    • "credibility"
    • enhances the likeliness of achieving the purpose of the speech
  23. factors affecting credibility
    • character (trustworthy, honest)
    • competence (knowledgeable, fair)
    • caring (warm, compassionate)
    • charismatic (dynamic, stimulating) <- secondary component of credibility
  24. What is an ethical speaker?
    a good person, who gives credit, and speaks truthfully
  25. What is an ethical audience?
    thinks critically, and is open minded and responsive
  26. Ways to develop credibility
    • do a personal inventory
    • be well prepared
    • enhance your immediacy
    • show that you care
  27. Good speakers make ethical decisions about:
    • Purpose: (if your private and public purposes are not aligned, you're standing on shaky ethical ground)
    • The Audience: (you should tell them what they need to hear, not just what they want to hear)
    • Credibility: (don't misrepresent yourself)
    • Logistics: (don't use your surroundings as an excuse to manipulate or trick your audience)
  28. What are logistics?
    describes the strategic planning, arranging, and use of people, facilities, time, and materials relevant to your speech
  29. What is an ideal maximum length for a speech?
    20 minutes
  30. When choosing the media for a speech, what four criteria should you consider?
    • ease of use
    • audience expectations
    • availability
    • adaptability
  31. What should you adapt your speech to?
    the nature of the occasion, the reason you are the speaker, the expectations of the audience, and the protocol of the occasion
  32. What clothing should you wear?
    should be comfortable, appropriate, and in a style that suits your personality and your speech's purpose
  33. What are supporting materials?
    • the ideas, information, and opinions that help explain/enhance arguments
    • determine whether information is reliable and credible
    • should seek unbiased facts and keep information in context
    • should use consistent citation style
  34. What types of supporting materials are there?
    • facts: a verifiable observation, experience or event
    • statistics: math that is concerned with collecting, summarizing and interpreting data
    • testimony: statement or opinion someone said or wrote
    • definition: clarifies the meaning of a word or concept
    • analogies: comparison between two different things
    • descriptions: creates a mental image of a scene
    • examples: references to a specific case or instance
    • stories: real stories about real people
  35. Topical organization pattern
    divides a large topic into related subtopics
  36. time organization pattern
    organizes information according to a set of logical steps, points in time, or calendar dates
  37. problem-solution organization pattern
    describes a harmful or difficult situation (the problem) and offers a plan to solve the problem
  38. space organization pattern
    arranges key points in terms of different locations
  39. cause-effect organization pattern
    either presents a cause or causes and the resulting effect or effects (cause to effect) or describes the effect or effects that result from a cause or causes (effect to cause)
  40. scientific method organization pattern
    follows a well established method of reporting scientific research
  41. stories and examples organization pattern
    uses dramatic and memorable stories and/or examples as the key points of the speech
  42. comparison-contrast organization pattern
    shows how two things are similar or different
  43. memory aids organization pattern
    uses easily remembered letters, words, or phrases to arrange key points
  44. connectives
    words/phrases that link one part of the speech to another, clarify how one idea relates to another, and identify how supporting material bolsters a key point
  45. internal preview
    a connective phrase that reveals or suggests your key points in your introduction or describes how you are going to approach a key point in the body of the speech
  46. internal summary
    a connective phrase that ends a section and helps to reinforce the section's important ideas
  47. transition
    connective words, numbers brief phrases, or sentences that help you direct audience attention from one key point or section to another
  48. signposts
    short, often numerical connectives that tell or remind your listeners where you are and how far you have to go in a speech
  49. Introductions
    • connect to audience, introduce points
    • primacy effect (tendency to remember the first thing you heard)
    • tell a story, introduce a statistic, establish a personal link
    • avoid apologizing or over-promising
  50. Conclusions
    • recency effect (tendency to remember the last thing you heard)
    • memorable, clear, brief, a summary of what was said
    • quote someone, refer to the beginning, call for action
  51. C.O.R.E.
    • Clear style
    • Oral style
    • Rhetorical style
    • Eloquent style
  52. Clear style
    • usually used to educate or explain
    • short, simple, direct, plain language, limited stylistically
  53. Oral style
    • resembles how we talk in everyday situations
    • conversational, personal
  54. Rhetorical style
    • designed to influence, persuade, and inspire
    • influential, persuasive, vivid words, intense language
  55. Eloquent style
    • poetic and expressive language used to make a speaker's thoughts and feelings clear, inspiring, and memorable
    • poetic, expressive language, repetition, artistic
  56. What are the 3 parts of generating audience interest?
    • power of stories
    • use of humor
    • advantages of immediacy
  57. Power of stories
    • simple stories to create lasting images
    • stories should embody truth, purpose, audience, and occasion
  58. Use of humor
    • should be used to make a point
    • needs to be well rehearsed and appropriate
  59. Advantages of immediacy
    develop immediacy by using both verbal and nonverbal strategies
  60. Forms of delivery
    • impromptu
    • extemporaneous
    • manuscript
    • memorized
  61. Vocal delivery
    • match speaking notes to style and situation
    • index cards, outline, manuscript
  62. Vocal clarity and correctness
    • monitor, practice, and work on breath control, volume, rate, pitch, fluency, inflection
    • speak slowly and improve articulation
    • avoid excessive filler phrases
  63. Physical delivery
    • effective and appropriate eye contact
    • natural gestures and facial expressions
    • confident posture and purposeful movement
  64. Types of presentation aids
    • powerpoints, videos, pie charts, maps, pictures, handouts
    • make highlight points
    • don't read from the presentation aid
  65. What is the dividing line between informing and persuading?
    the speaker's purpose
  66. Classify your informative speech in terms of what?
    whether its purpose is informatory (reports new information) or explanatory (clarifies difficult terms, explains quasi-scientific phenomena, or overcomes confusion and misunderstanding)
  67. Effective informative speeches reflect strategic decisions related to what?
    the seven elements of communication: purpose, audience, credibility, context, content, organization, and delivery
  68. What should you do when the audience already agrees with you?
    present new information, strengthen audience persuasion, excite emotions
  69. What should you do when the audience disagrees with you?
    set reasonable goals, find common ground, accept and adapt other opinions
  70. What should you do when audience members are undecided?
    gain their attention and provide relevant information
  71. What should you do when audience members are unconcerned?
    gain their attention and give them a reason to care
  72. What should you do when audience members are adamantly undecided?
    acknowledge the legitimacy of their opinions and strengthen your argument
  73. Toulmin model
    • claims
    • evidence
    • warrants
  74. What are the four types of proofs?
    • logical (logos)
    • emotional (pathos)
    • personal (ethos)
    • narrative (mythos)
  75. Elaboration likelihood model of persuasion
    helps determine whether a central or peripheral route to persuasion is needed
  76. What are heuristics?
    cognitive shortcuts that are correct often enough to be useful when making decisions
  77. What is a public group presentation?
    • occurs when one or more members of the group speak, relatively uninterrupted, to other group members or to an audience outside the group
    • symposium, forum, or governance group
  78. symposium
    group members present short, uninterrupted speeches on different aspects of a topic for the benefit of the audience
  79. forum
    frequently follows a panel discussion, gives audience opportunity to ask questions or comment
  80. governance group
    makes public policy decisions, public settings open to public
  81. team presentation
    a well-coordinated presentation made by a cohesive groups of speakers who seek to influence an audience of listeners or key decision makers
Card Set:
COMM 204 Final Study Guide
2014-12-12 22:48:00
public speaking final comm 204
COMM 204 Public Speaking Final Study Guide
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