Spanish 110 Misc Grammar

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Spanish 110 Misc Grammar
2014-12-12 16:25:07

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  1. Ir + a + destination
    • Talk about actions that occur in the present
    • Talk about recurring or habitual actions
    • Talk about actions in the near future when accompanied by phrases indicating the future
    • a (to) + el (the) = al
    • de (from, about, of) + el = del
  2. Ir + a + infinitive 
    Making future plans
    Conjugate Ir, add a, add the infinitive verb
  3. Present Progressive
    • estar + present participle (-ndo)
    • Conjugate estar
    • -ar verbs change to -ando
    • -er verbs change to -iendo
    • -ir verbs change to -iendo 
  4. Present Participle -ir verbs
    -ir verbs that have a stem change keep their stem change in the present participle
  5. Present Participle -ir/-er verbs with stems ending in a vowel
    • If the -ir/-er verb stem ends in a vowel, the stem becomes -yendo
    • leer = leyendo
    • oír = oyendo
    • creer = creyendo
    • traer = trayendo
  6. Subject Pronouns
    • yo (I) = soy
    • tú (you, singular informal) = eres
    • usted (you, singular formal) = es
    • él (he), ella (she) = es
    • nosotros/as (we) = somos
    • ustedes (you, plural) = son
    • ellos (they, masculine), ellas (they, feminine) = son
  7. Gender and Number Agreement - Nouns
    singular nouns ending in a vowel form the plural by adding -s

    singular nouns ending in a consonant form the plural by adding =es

    singular nouns ending in -z form the plural by changing -z to -ces
  8. personal a
    • a + el = al
    • precedes a direct object that is a specific person
  9. Descriptive Adjectives - Formation
    • Adjectives agree in gender and number with the nouns or pronouns they modify
    • Adjectives that end in -o have four possible forms (masculine/feminine, singular/plural) to indicate agreement
    • Adjectives that end in -e or -ista, and most ending in a consonant, have only singular/plural forms
    • Adjectives ending in -dor add -a to agree with a feminine singular noun (trabajador becomes trabajadora) 
    • To make a singular adjective plural, add -s to the vowel or -es to the consonant
  10. Descriptive Adjectives - Position
    • Usually follow the noun they describe
    • Adjectives of quantity precede the noun
    • Bueno/a and malo/a may be placed before or after a noun. Before a masculine singular noun, bueno becomes buen and malo becomes mal.
  11. Preferences
    • tener ganas de + infinitivo
    • preferir
    • querer
    • desear
  12. Obligations
    • tener que  + infinitivo
    • deber + infinitivo
  13. Intentions/Plans
    pensar + infinitivo