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Tool making was one of the characteristics of the Paleolithic era.
For most persons in Mesopotamia, the gods cared little for humanity and were very difficult to appease.
The region of Mesopotamia is located between the Nile and Zambezi rivers in North Africa.
There are important similarities between the epic of Gilgamesh and the story of Noah and the Ark.
Although Mesopotamian s were tremendous builders, they made no advancements in mathematics.
People in the Middle East perceived natural phenomenon as a direct intervention of divine powers.
As compared to their Mesopotamian neighbors, the Egyptians made little advance in the area of mathematics and medicine.
Akhenaton was the pharaoh that promoted "monotheism" that is, believed in only one god.
The Phoenicians are credited with creating the first real alphabet.
Although the Hebrew people lived in Mesopotamia, other cultures had little influence on their life and literature.
The Hebrew exodus from Egypt happened after their Babylonian captivity.
Saul led the Hebrew people out of Egypt.
After King Solomon the kingdom split and became two separate kingdoms: Judah and Israel.
According to the prophet Amos, Ritual action was far more important than the care of the poor and outcast.
The Minoan civilization was located on the island of Crete
For Homer, a Greek should strive to attain arete.
In his funeral oration for those who have died in the Peloponnesian War, Pericles reminded those listening of the importance of democracy and how Athens differed from other city whose government favors the few.
Cleisthenes argued that Athenian democracy would be more successful if the customary divisions of society such as tribes and clans were dissolved and persons developed a stronger sense of civic pride.
Cleisthenes was one of the oligarchs who worked against democracy/
Pythagoras did not search for one physical thing as the basis of all creation; instead he argued that mathematical relationships were the underlying principle of all created things.
The sophists argued in favor of the presence of universal truths against the idea that truth and knowledge is relative.
Socrates was more concerned about questions of morality and ethics than he was of questions dealing with exact substance that was common for all matter.
Plato did not consider democracy the best form of government.
Aristotle demonstrated a far greater interest in biology and natural sciences than did Plato.
Greek philosophy and art placed a great emphasis on the individual.
Greek dramatists saw an inner logic to the universe and called it Fate or Destiny. When people were stubborn or arrogant, they were punished.
According to Aeschylus, the Persians were successful in their military campaigns because they displayed arete.
Sophocles was a great Athenian general who led the charge against the Persians.
In Lysistrata, the women of Athens attempt to stop the war by no longer working in the kitchen.
After the death Alexander, the Greek language became the common language of the Mediterranean and the territories conquered by Alexander.
The Ptolemaic, Seleucide, and Antigonid were all philosophical systems established in Athens during the time of Pericles.
Hellenistic science resembled Platonic philosophy in that it favored abstract theory instead of investigation into the material world.
Polybius sought to explain the rise of Rome to the status of a great power.
According to Stoic philosophy, natural law provides human beings with an awareness of what is and is not correct behavior, especially when dealing with other human beings.
The Etruscans learned much about architectural styles, road construction and sanitation from the Romans.
In the early years of the Roman Republic the plebeians controlled most of the land and exerted a strong influence on the army.
Roman citizens, like the Jews, considered law to be given by the gods and its bases in divine inspiration.
Hannibal fought on the side of the Romans.
Tiberius Gracchus worked for land reform.
After Octavian's forces defeated Antony and Cleopatra, there was a continuous round of assaults by various generals against Octavian which led to internal fighting for the next 40 years.
In 70 A.D. the Jewish people led a successful revolt against the Romans.
Galen advanced methods of architecture and engineering, especially his use constructions of domes such as the Parthenon.
Seneca, Epictetus, and Marcus Aurelius were all stoic philosophers.
According to Ptolemy, the sun revolved around the earth.
Immigrants were treated wit high regard in the later years of the Roman empire.
During the third century the Roman Empire witnessed a severe breakdown of the relationship between its core and periphery.
According to the Letter to the Galatians, Paul was in favor of maintaining certain Jewish practices for those persons who converted to Christianity.
One of the reasons for the fall of the Roman Empire was disenchantment with the government and a lack of desire for any public service.
Paul traveled very little and relied on letters as a means of advancing his thoughts concerning Christianity.
What was not a characteristic of the Paleolithic period?
a. painting on cave walls
b. hunting in groups
c. using tools
d. the domestication of animals and harvesting crops
The domestication of animals and harvesting crops
Which event occurred first:
a. The creation of cave points
b. the creation of cuneiform
c. the domestication of animals
d. the code of Hamurabi
The creation of cave paintings
Which events occurred or where present during the Neolithic period
a. religious beliefs
b. domestication of animals
c. the use of tools
d. creation of art
c. all of the above
all of the above
The Mesopotamian gods...
a. reflect the sense of insecurity and apprehension felt among Mesopotamian people.
b. were seen as benevolent protectors of their people
c. were thought to be willing to extend their protection to their chosen people
d. reflected the confidence and optimism of the Mesopotamian people
Reflect the sense of insecurity and apprehension felt among Mesopotamian people
The word Mesopotamia means the land between the rivers. The two rivers which encompassed Mesopotamia were...
a. Nile and Tiber
b. Tiber and the Tigris
c. Tigris and Euphrates
d. Euphrates and Nile
Tigris and Euphrates
Near Eastern civilizations...
a. were held back from scientific advancement by the lack of a system of writing
b. rejected science as incompatible with their religious commitments
c. contributed to the development of the wheeled vehicle, the plow, mathematics and medecine
Contributed to the development of the wheeled vehicle, the plow, mathematics and medecine
Who were the creators of the earliest civilizations....
Egyptians and Sumerians
A myth can be best explained as...
A traditional story that seeks to explain the origins of the world and the actions of supernatural powers.
The Biblical story of the Garden of Eden derives from...
The exile of the Hebrews following the fall of Israel to the Assyrians is known as...
the Babylonian exile
The Story of the Exodus, Moses leading the people from Egypt probably occurred within the time frame...
In contrast to Near Eastern religious thought, Hebrew religious thought taught Yahweh...
a. had created nature but did not dwell in it; rather, the Hebrews believed their God transcended nature
b. had been born to lead them into greatness
c. exhibited many human characteristics
d. would die at the end of the world
Had created nature but did not dwell in it; rather, the Hebrews believed their God transcended nature
What idea best captures the Hebrew idea of history?
a. human history was the work of God, a divine drama filled with scared meaning and moral significance
b. That human history was the story of how good God was battling for supremacy over the lesser gods of Mesopotamia
c. That human action was not the concern of Yahweh, but the general trends of the community particularly in terms of religious observance was of greater concern
d. That God acted in such a way so as to force humans to act in a manner so as to do the right thing. God frequently acted to negate human free will
human history was the work of God, a divine drama filled with scared meaning and moral significance
Jeremiah's prophecy to the Hebrews warned that...
a. they should build a giant statue of Yaweh to ward off invasion by the Babylonians
b. they should build a huge army to prepare for an attack from the Babylonians
c. God had forsaken them and would bring the Babylonians to conquer them
d. Idol worship and mistreatment of their fellow men and women would cause them to be conquered by the Babylonians
Idol worship and mistreatment of their fellow men and women would cause them to be conquered by the Babylonians
The legacy of the ancient Jews includes all of the following except...
a. the idea that all time was cyclical
b. the value Westerners placed on the individual
c. a fundamental component of Christianity
the idea that all time was cyclical
The Hebrew's belief in moral responsibility resulted from...
a. communal traditions
b. an emphasis on the family as the source of morality
c. pride in oneself
d. an awareness of individual human beings as having free will to act
an awareness of individual human beings as having free will to act
Bull jumping was the favorite entertainment of the...
The plot of the Illiad concerned...
a. the Dorian invasion into Greece
b. the battle between Mycenae and Troy
c. the Persian Wars
d. The Peloponnesian wars
the battle between Mycenae and Troy
The Helots were...
a. native Greek craftsman who could not vote
b. the chief politician in the city Sparta
c. Greeks outside the city of Sparta who were conquered and became slaves for the city
d. the soldiers of Sparta
Greeks outside the city of Sparta who were conquered and became slaves for the city
Cleisthenes argued that Athenian democracy would be more successful if...
a. the customary divisions of society such as tribes and clans were removed and people developed civic pride
b. only the very educated and well-trained could vote
c. women as well as men could voted
d. only persons who served in the military could vote
the customary divisions of society such as tribes and clans were removed and people developed civic pride
In the evolution of the Athenian political system after the year 800 B.C., which was the correct order (first being earliest)
a. democracy, plutocracy, aristocracy, monarchy
b. plutocracy, democracy, aristocracy, monarchy
c. monarchy, democracy, aristocracy, plutocracy
d. monarchy, aristocracy, plutocracy, democracy
monarchy, aristocracy, plutocracy, democracy
In contrast to the Babylonians and the Egyptians, the Greeks...
a. were able to preform complex mathematical operations
b. attempted to organize and systematize their knowledge to prove underlying principles that did not necessarily have divine causes
c. observed the heavens and recorded their findings
d.wrote medical texts
attempted to organize and systematize their knowledge to prove underlying principles that did not necessarily have divine causes
The first Ionian philosophers were called cosmologists because they...
a. believed that everything in the world was an impermanent illusion
b. rejected the idea that universal principles guided the universe
c. sought the underlying principles of universe
d. believed that only the cosmos was worth studying
sought the underlying principles of universe
This philosopher did not hold that all creation was one particular substance rather; he argued that the basis for material things was numerical relationship.
The sophists held that...
a. Persian philosophers were the source of most Greek thought
b. truth was as real as physical matter
c. only the Greeks were capable of rational thought
d. no truth is universally valid
no truth is universally valid
The idea that accepted truths and moral values are not universally valid, but are a matter of individual or group judgement is best described as...
Socrates method of inquiry, dialectics, involved...
a. a dialog between individuals, meant to root out illogical assumptions and arrive at clearly defined ideas
b. a process through which an individual cleared him or herself of all negative thoughts
c. the withdrawal of the individual from society, in order to facilitate private contemplation
d. analysis that was based on the assumption that human beings are fundamentally irrational
a dialog between individuals, meant to root out illogical assumptions and arrive at clearly defined ideas
Plato argued that truth...
a. is an imperfect and transitory reflection of our knowledge of the physical world
b. is accessible through the senses
c. resides in the world of the Forms rather than material world experience
d. like other abstract concepts such as "good" and "evil" is subjective, rather than a universal absolute
resides in the world of the Forms rather than material world experience
This philosopher was killed for the belief that truth was objective and it could not be changed by clever argumentation of powerful persons...
Aeschylus believed that the fault of hubris, or excessive ____ would be punished by the gods.
This person is considered father of historical writing...
Alexander inherited from Phillip an over-riding policy of state:
a. the invasion of Persia
b. the maximization of tax revenue
c. the support of traditional religion
d. an alliance with egypt
the invasion of Persia
The adoption of Greek language, culture and civilization best describes...
Alexander the Great gained and appreciation for Greek culture from his tutor...
Following Alexander the Great's death...
a. His Persian wife became the ruler
b. his generals fought over succession and divided his empire
c. his son succeeded to power
d. his father, Philip of Macedon, once again took control of the empire
his generals fought over succession and divided his empire
This Philisophical system argued that each human person had an inner law given by God and every person was required to act upon this law.
According to the Stoics, wise persons...
a. ordered their lived according to natural law
b. should strive to better his or her social and economic position
c. should give his or her emotions free range, in order that he or she night better understand them
d. should seek out suffering, in order to learn how to endure it
ordered their lived according to natural law
Hellenistic sculpture is characterized by...
a. a greater emphasis on realism and everyday life
b. greater emphasis on idealism
c. a greater similarity with Egyptian art of the Ptolemaic dynasty
d. a greater similarity with art from Mesopotamia
a greater emphasis on realism and everyday life
For the Skeptics, ____ could be known with certainty...
a. natural laws
d. the existence of gods
Which is the correct chronology of Greek sculpture?
a. geometric, archaic, classical, Hellenistic
b. Hellenistic, classical, archaic, geometric
c. classical, Hellenistic, archaic, geometric
d. archaic, classical, geometric, Hellenistic
geometric, archaic, classical, Hellenistic
The Romans acquired which of the following from Etruscans...
a. engineering skills
b. symbols of authority and rule
c. words and names
d. all of these
all of these
Roman commoners were known as...
The "Struggle of the Orders" indicates...
a. the conflict over sharing of power between plebians and the patricians
b. the use of land and its proper use along the Meditterranean coast
c. the conflict between Etruscan and Latin religions
d. the stabilization of the Latin alphabet over the Etruscan alphabet
the conflict over sharing of power between plebians and the patricians
The government of the Romans never became democratic because...
a. patronage networks of wealthy families controlled the government
b. the plebians denied equality before the law
c. plebians could never become wealthy
d. plebians were forbidden political participation
patronage networks of wealthy families controlled the government
The first stage of Roman expansion was the...
a. Uniting of the Italian Peninsula
b. Collision with Carthage
c. Subjugation of the Hellenistic states
d. Subquest of Gaul and Germania
Uniting of the Italian Peninsula
Which event occurred first...
a. The first Punic war
b. The second Punic war
c. The third Punic war
The first Punic war
a. the general who fought at the Battle of Cannae
b. a slave who led a revolt against Rome
c. a tribune who supported Gaius Gracchus
d. a great orator
a slave who led a revolt against Rome
Rome's conquest of the Hellenistic world resulted in...
a. the Romans substantially altering their political system by incorporating Greek democratic ideas
b. a clash between Stoic philosophy and Roman values and concepts of law
c. Roman adoption of Greek humanistic thought
d. most Romans rejecting foreign good like the luxuries of the East
Roman adoption of Greek humanistic thought
Gracchan Revolution refers to...
a. the Gracchi brothers attempt to advance the nobility's right to rule over the lower classes
b. a famous architect's ability to create a building with a dome
c. The Gracchi brothers's attempt to create land rights over the lower classes
d. The revolution of the Phoenicians against the Romans
The Gracchi brothers's attempt to create land rights over the lower classes
During the Pax Romana...
a. the status of women gradually improved
b. women under greater restrictions than they had been during the republican period
c. women were not allowed to divorce their husbands
the status of women gradually improved
"Bread and Circus" refers to...
a. the means used to make the unemployed happy and keep them from rioting
b. the political platform of emperor Hadrian
c. the food distribution program held at the Circus Maximus
d. the agriculture shortage and poor land management in in the outlying districts
the means used to make the unemployed happy and keep them from rioting
Mithraism can be best explained as a / an...
c. economic system
d. artistic style
Which group of people caused the dislocation of Germanic tribes in the North of the Roman empire and caused the tribes to migrate south and west into the Roman Empire?
Christianity originated in...
Just before the birth of Jesus and during his lifetime there were four principle parties or groups in Judaism. Which one was not one of these groups?
The Zealots were...
a. willing to work for the Roman governors
b. wanted to revolt against Rome
c. denied the existence of the trinity
d. were followers of Paul
wanted to revolt against Rome