respiratory drugs.txt

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rere_girl4ever
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291471
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respiratory drugs.txt
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2014-12-13 19:38:01
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respiratory drugs
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respiratory drugs
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respiratory drugs.txt
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  1. What are the 1st generation H1 blockers, their MOA and toxicity?
    • Diphenhydramine
    • Dimenhydrinate
    • Chlorpheniramine
    • Names contain “-en/-ine” or “-en/-ate.”
    • CLINICAL USES: Allergy, motion sickness, sleep aid.
    • TOXICITY: Sedation, antimuscarinic, anti-a-adrenergic.
  2. What are the 2nd generation H1 blockers, what are their uses and side effects?
    • Loratadine
    • Fexofenadine
    • Desloratadine
    • Cetirizine
    • Names usually end in “-adine.”
    • CLINICAL USES: Allergy.
    • TOXICITY: Far less sedating than 1st generation because of decreased entry into CNS.
  3. What is the MOA, use and side effects of Diphenhydramine?
    • MECHANISM: H1 blocker (1st generation)
    • CLINICAL USES: Allergy, motion sickness, sleep aid.
    • TOXICITY: Sedation, antimuscarinic, anti-a-adrenergic.
  4. What is the MOA, use and side effects of Dimenhydrinate?
    • MECHANISM: H1 blocker (1st generation)
    • CLINICAL USES: Allergy, motion sickness, sleep aid.
    • TOXICITY: Sedation, antimuscarinic, anti-a-adrenergic.
  5. What is the MOA, use and side effects of Chlorpheniramine?
    • MECHANISM: H1 blocker (1st generation)
    • CLINICAL USES: Allergy, motion sickness, sleep aid.
    • TOXICITY: Sedation, antimuscarinic, anti-a-adrenergic.
  6. What is the MOA, use and side effects of Loratadine?
    • MECHANISM: H1 blocker (2nd generation)
    • CLINICAL USES: Allergy.
    • TOXICITY: Far less sedating than 1st generation because of decreased entry into CNS.
  7. What is the MOA, use and side effects of Fexofenadine?
    • MECHANISM: H1 blocker (2nd generation)
    • CLINICAL USES: Allergy.
    • TOXICITY: Far less sedating than 1st generation because of decreased entry into CNS.
  8. What is the MOA, use and side effects of Desloratidine?
    • MECHANISM: H1 blocker (2nd generation)
    • CLINICAL USES: Allergy.
    • TOXICITY: Far less sedating than 1st generation because of decreased entry into CNS.
  9. What is the MOA, use and side effects of Cetirizine?
    • MECHANISM: H1 blocker (2nd generation)
    • CLINICAL USES: Allergy.
    • TOXICITY: Far less sedating than 1st generation because of decreased entry into CNS.
  10. What is the MOA and use of Guaifenesin?
    Expectorant—thins respiratory secretions; does not suppress cough reflex.
  11. This drug is an expectorant which thins respiratory secretions
    Guaifenesin
  12. What the MOA and use of N-acetylcysteine?
    • Mucolytic—can loosen mucous plugs in CF patients
    • Also used as an antidote for acetaminophen overdose.
  13. This drug can loosen mucous plugs in CF patients.
    N-acetylcysteine
  14. This drug is used as an antidote for acetaminophen overdose.
    N-acetylcysteine
  15. What is the MOA, use and side effects of Dextromethorphan?
    • MOA: Antagonizes NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate) glutamate receptors. Synthetic codeine analog. Has mild opioid effect when used in excess.
    • USE: Cough reliever.
  16. Treatmet of overdose of Dextromethorphan.
    Naloxone can be given for overdose. Mild abuse potential.
  17. This respiratory drug antagonizes NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate) glutamate receptors.
    Dextromethorphan
  18. This respiratory drug is a synthetic codeine analog.
    Dextromethorphan
  19. What is the MOA, use and side effects of Pseudoephedrine? phenylephrine
    • MECHANISM: Sympathomimetic a-agonistic nasal decongestants.
    • CLINICAL USE: Reduce hyperemia, edema, and nasal congestion; open obstructed eustachian tubes. Pseudoephedrine also illicitly used to make methamphetamine.
    • TOXICITY: Hypertension. Can also cause CNS stimulation/anxiety (pseudoephedrine).
  20. What is the MOA, use and side effects of Phenylephrine?
    • MECHANISM: Sympathomimetic a-agonistic nasal decongestants.
    • CLINICAL USE: Reduce hyperemia (excess of blood in vessels supplying an organ or other part of the body), edema, and nasal congestion; open obstructed eustachian tubes.
    • TOXICITY: Hypertension. Can also cause CNS stimulation/anxiety (pseudoephedrine).
  21. What is the MOA and use of Albuterol?
    • MOA: Albuterol—relaxes bronchial smooth muscle (Beta-Two agonist)
    • USE: Use during acute exacerbation of asthma.
  22. This drug is used during acute exacerbation of asthma.
    Albuterol
  23. What is the MOA, use and side effects of Salmeterol?
    • MOA: Beta-two agonist
    • USE: Long-acting agents for prophylaxis of asthma.
    • ADVERSE EFFECTS: Tremor and arrhythmia
  24. What is the MOA, use and side effects of Formoterol?
    • MOA: Beta-two agonist
    • USE: Long-acting agents for prophylaxis of asthma.
    • ADVERSE EFFECTS: Tremor and arrhythmia
  25. What are the long-acting agents for prophylaxis of asthma?
    Salmeterol and Formoterol
  26. A side effect of the use of these drugs in Asthmatic patients are Tremor and arrhythmia.
    Salmeterol and Formoterol
  27. What are the Methylxanthines?
    Theophylline
  28. What is the MOA, use and side effects of Theophylline?
    • MOA: Causes bronchodilation by inhibiting phosphodiesterase causing increased cAMP levels
    • USE: Asthma.
    • TOXICITYL: Usage is limited because of narrow therapeutic index (cardiotoxicity, neurotoxicity); metabolized by cytochrome P-450.
  29. Why is the use of Theophylline limited?
    Usage is limited because of narrow therapeutic index (cardiotoxicity, neurotoxicity)
  30. Describe the relationship of Theophylline with the cytochrome p-450?
    metabolized by cytochrome P-450.
  31. This drug blocks actions of adenosine.
    Theophylline
  32. What is the MOA and use of Ipratropium?
    • MOA: Competitive block of muscarinic receptors, preventing bronchoconstriction
    • USE: Asthma,COPD, as is tiotropium, a long-acting muscarinic antagonist.
  33. What is the MOA and use of Tiotropium?
    • MOA: Competitive block of muscarinic receptors (long acting), preventing bronchoconstriction
    • USE: Asthma, COPD.
  34. This drug is a muscarinic antagonist which prevents bronchoconstriction.
    • Ipratropium
    • Tiotropium
  35. What is the MOA and use of Beclomethasone?
    • MOA: Inhibit the synthesis of virtually all cytokines. Inactivate NF-kappaB, the transcription factor that induces the production of TNF-a and other inflammatory agents
    • USE: 1st-line therapy for chronic asthma
  36. This drug is used as 1st-line therapy for chronic asthma.
  37. What is the MOA and use of Fluticasone?
    • MOA: Inhibit the synthesis of virtually all cytokines. Inactivate NF-kappaB, the transcription factor that induces the production of TNF-a and other inflammatory agents
    • USE: 1st-line therapy for chronic asthma
  38. Respiratory drug which inactivates NF-kappaB
    Beclomethasone, Fluticasone
  39. WHat is the MOA of Montelukast?
    • MOA: Block leukotriene receptors
    • USE: Especially good for aspirin-induced asthma.
  40. What is the MOA of zafirlukast?
    • MOA: Block leukotriene receptors
    • USE: Especially good for aspirin-induced asthma.
  41. These respiratory drugs block leukotriene receptors.
    Montelukast, Zafirlukast
  42. Respiratory drugs especially good for aspirin-induced asthma.
    Montelukast, Zafirlukast
  43. What is the MOA and use of Zileuton?
    • MOA: a 5-lipoxygenase pathway inhibitor. Blocks conversion of arachidonic acid to leukotrienes.
    • USE: Asthma
  44. This drug is a 5-lipoxygenase pathway inhibitor.
    Zileuton
  45. This drug blocks conversion of arachidonic acid to leukotrienes.
    Zileuton
  46. What is the MOA and use of Omalizumab?
    • MOA: Monoclonal anti-IgE antibody. Binds mostly unbound serum IgE and blocks binding to FCERI.
    • USE: Used in allergic asthma resistant to inhaled steroids and long-acting b2-agonist
  47. This anti-asthma drug is a monoclonal anti-IgE antibody
    Omalizumab
  48. This drug binds mostly unbound serum IgE and blocks binding to FCERI.
    Omalizumab
  49. This drug is used in allergic asthma resistant to inhaled steroids and long-acting b2-agonist.
    Omalizumab

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