Ch 5 & 6 Quiz
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What is the outermost organ system of the body?
What is the two major layers of the skin?
- Epidermis (outer)
- Dermis (inner)
In the Epidermis, The stratified squamous epithelium contain no _____.
In the epidermis, Where is keratinocytes produced?
Stratum basale aka stratum germinativum
What is the two major layer of epidermis called?
- Stratum germinativum (innermost epidermal layer)
- Stratum Corneum (outermost epidermal layer)
In the epidermis, where does mitosis occur to produce new cells?
In the Epidermis, What is the name of the new cells produced in the stratum germinativum?
In the epidermis, The outermost epidermal layer consists of many layers of dead cells.
In the epidermis, The epidermal layer that prevents loss and entry of H2O & resists entry of pathogens and chemicals.
Name the Epidermis cell that:
- Originate in bone marrow
- phagocytizes foreign materials
- migrates to the lymphnodes
- triggers immune response
- important role in immunity
Name the cell type found in lower epidermis:
- produce pigment melanin
- melanin production stimulated by UV rays
The _______ is made of an irregular type of fibrous connective tissue.
Irregular meaning fibrous are not parallel, but run in all direction.
In the Dermis, Collagen and elastin are produced by?
In the Dermis, Which layer of the dermis contains capillaries that nourish stratum germinativum?
Hair & nails follicles, sensory receptors and many types of glands are accessory skin structures of this?
- provides insulation on head and protection from dust from eyes and nasal passage
- new cells produce keratin
- mitosis takes place in hair root
- protects the fingers and toes, enables fingers to pick up objects, scratching
- mitosis takes place at the nail root
- Detects change, stimulate response
- sensitivity increase as number of receptors increase.
What does sebaceous gland secrete?
sebum (oil), purpose of oil is to inhibit growth of bacteria and drying of skin/hair.
Secretes cerumen (wax), prevents drying of ear drum?
Where is apocrine glands found?
axillae (armpit) and genital areas
Where is eccrine glands location?
- face, palms, soles
- stimulated by high temp, stress, and excessive exercise
- Mammory gland (modified sweat gland)
Walls have smooth muscles allow constriction and dilation. Aids in body temp maintenance.
Arterioles (small arteries)
What is Vasodilation?
release of body heat in Hot Environment
what is vasoconstriction?
conserve body heat in cold environment
what is subcutaneous tissue known as?
what does subcutaneous tissue do?
connects skin to muscle
what tissue contains WBCs that destroys pathogens?
What stores fat as potential ATP, cushions bony prominences, and somewhat insulates?
What is 1st degree burn?
superficial, reness, pain, swelling, hot. aka sunburn
what is 2nd degree burn?
s/s from 1st degree plus blisters
what is 3rd degree burn?
full thickness burn. charred or burned away. such burn no painful at first as receptors have been destroyed.
What are some skin signs in aging?
- ⋄ both layers thinner
- ⋄ mitosis decrease
- ⋄ deterioration of collagen and elastin fibers (wrinkles)
- ⋄ sebaceous sweat glands less active
- ⋄ hair follicles inactive
- ⋄ melanocytes die
The skeleton stores excess calcium (Ca+) which is essential for?
what is the matrix of bone made of?
Calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate, and collagen.
compact bone, looks solid but is very precisely structured, what is it made up of?
- Osteons/Haversian systems.
- Haversian system: microscopic cylinders of bone matrix with osteocytes in concentric rings around central haversian canals.
what are bone cells called?
What does spongy bone have?
- No Haversian systems
- contain red bone marrow
What is haversian systems?
microscopic cylinders of bone matrix with osteocytes in concentric rings around central haversian canals.
Provides smooth surface found on joint surfaces
surround bone tissue, a fibrous CT membrane whose collagen fibers merge with those of the tendons.
Classification of Long bones?
- arms, legs, hands, and feet.
- (not wrists and ankles)
What is yellow bone marrow?
The shaft of the long bone?
The ends of the long bone?
- Proximal epiphysis (upper)
- Distal epiphysis (lower)
What are short bone?
wrists & ankles
What are flat bones?
ribs, shoulder blades, hip bones, and cranial bones.
what is irregular bones?
the vertebrae and facial bone
- Osteo - bone
- blast - growing/producing cell
what is ossification?
the production of bone matrix
in gestation, when does ossification begin?
3rd month/12 week.
in embryonic growth of bone, cranial and facial bones are first made of?
in embryonic growth of bone, all other bones are first made of?
reabsorb bone matrix to form marrow canal?
Vitamin D is important in the absorption of?
Vitamin C & A is important for?
cell division, protein synthesis, calcium metabolism and ATP production are all important factors of?
What is exercise stress?
healthy levels of exercises can help in bone growth.
What is part of the axial (axis of the body) skeleton?
skull, vertebral column, rib cage
What is part of the appendicular (appendages) skeleton?
arms, legs, shoulder, pelvic girdles
What is synathrosis type of joints?
immovable (cranial structure)
what is amphiarthrosis type of joint?
slightly moveable joint (vertebra)
what is diarthrosis type of joints?
free movable joints: ball & socket, hinge, condyloid, pivot, gliding, saddle
prevents friction as bones move
small sacs of synovial fluid permits tendons to slide easily
In the stratum germinativum, vitamin D is formed from _____ on exposure to UV rays of sunlight.
the living keratinocytes are able to synthesize antimicrobial peptides called? produced following an injury to skin. part of inflammation process.
the protein in epidermal cells that make the skin relatively waterproof is?
Inflammatory response characteristic of allergies?
this will seperate layers of the epidermis or seperate the epidermis from dermis, tissue fluid may collect.
if skin is subjected to pressure, the rate of mitosis in the stratum germinativum will increase and create thicker epidermis
made primarily from amino acid tyrosine.
the pigment called melanin
in sensory receptors, heat, cold, itch, and pain the receptors are?
free nerve endings
in receptors, the receptors responsible for touch and pressure are called?
encapsulated nerve endings.
in types of bone tissue, these "legs" are cytoplasmic extensions of osteocytes through microscopic _____ in the matrix.
canaliculi or "little canal"
Bone matrix is produced by cells called?
A baby has areas of fibrous connective tissue remaining between the bones of the skull. it permits compression of the baby's head during birth w/o breaking the still thin cranial bones.
In the long bone, where does growth occur?
The body's energy-storage tissue communicates with the body's weight-bearing tissue. bone tissue communicates in return.
covering the rest of the bone is the periosteum, a fibrous connective tissue membrane whose collage fibers merge with those of the _____ & _____.
Tendons and Ligaments.
Vertebrae that are within the neck and how many?
Cervical vertebrae (7)
Vertebrae that are articulate with the ribs on the posterior side of the trunk and how many?
Thoracic vertebrae (12)
the largest and strongest bones of the spine found in the small of back and how many total?
Lumbar vertebrae (5)
permits the articulation of the two hip bones. fusion of 5 vertebrae
the tailbone, some muscles of the perineum are anchored to it.
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