Ch 5 & 6 Quiz

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Ch 5 & 6 Quiz
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2014-12-15 02:20:05
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Ch 5 & 6 Quiz
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  1. What is the outermost organ system of the body?
    The Skin
  2. What is the two major layers of the skin?
    • Epidermis (outer)
    • Dermis (inner)
  3. In the Epidermis, The stratified squamous epithelium contain no _____.
    capillaries
  4. In the epidermis, Where is keratinocytes produced?
    Stratum basale aka stratum germinativum
  5. What is the two major layer of epidermis called?
    • Stratum germinativum (innermost epidermal layer)
    • Stratum Corneum (outermost epidermal layer)
  6. In the epidermis, where does mitosis occur to produce new cells?
    stratum germinativum
  7. In the Epidermis, What is the name of the new cells produced in the stratum germinativum?
    Protein Keratin
  8. In the epidermis, The outermost epidermal layer consists of many layers of dead cells.
    Stratum corneum.
  9. In the epidermis, The epidermal layer that prevents loss and entry of H2O & resists entry of pathogens and chemicals.
    Stratum Corneum
  10. Name the Epidermis cell that:
    - Originate in bone marrow
    - phagocytizes foreign materials
    - migrates to the lymphnodes
    - triggers immune response
    - important role in immunity
    Langerhans Cells
  11. Name the cell type found in lower epidermis: 
    - produce pigment melanin
    - melanin production stimulated by UV rays
    Melanocytes
  12. The _______ is made of an irregular type of fibrous connective tissue.

    Irregular meaning fibrous are not parallel, but run in all direction.
    Dermis
  13. In the Dermis, Collagen and elastin are produced by?
    Fibroblasts
  14. In the Dermis, Which layer of the dermis contains capillaries that nourish stratum germinativum?
    Papillary layer
  15. Hair & nails follicles, sensory receptors and many types of glands are accessory skin structures of this?
    Dermis
  16. - provides insulation on head and protection from dust from eyes and nasal passage
    - new cells produce keratin
    - mitosis takes place in hair root
    Hair follicles
  17. - protects the fingers and toes, enables fingers to pick up objects, scratching
    - mitosis takes place at the nail root
    Nail Follicles
  18. - Detects change, stimulate response
    - sensitivity increase as number of receptors increase.
    Receptors
  19. What does sebaceous gland secrete?
    sebum (oil), purpose of oil is to inhibit growth of bacteria and drying of skin/hair.
  20. Secretes cerumen (wax), prevents drying of ear drum?
    Ceruminous glands
  21. Where is apocrine glands found?
    axillae (armpit) and genital areas
  22. Where is eccrine glands location?
    • face, palms, soles
    • stimulated by high temp, stress, and excessive exercise
    • Mammory gland (modified sweat gland)
  23. Walls have smooth muscles allow constriction and dilation. Aids in body temp maintenance.
    Arterioles (small arteries)
  24. What is Vasodilation?
    release of body heat in Hot Environment
  25. what is vasoconstriction?
    conserve body heat in cold environment
  26. what is subcutaneous tissue known as?
    superficial fascia
  27. what does subcutaneous tissue do?
    connects skin to muscle
  28. what tissue contains WBCs that destroys pathogens?
    Areolar Tissue
  29. What stores fat as potential ATP, cushions bony prominences, and somewhat insulates?
    Adipose tissue
  30. What is 1st degree burn?
    superficial, reness, pain, swelling, hot. aka sunburn
  31. what is 2nd degree burn?
    s/s from 1st degree plus blisters
  32. what is 3rd degree burn?
    full thickness burn. charred or burned away. such burn no painful at first as receptors have been destroyed.
  33. What are some skin signs in aging?
    • ⋄ both layers thinner
    • ⋄ mitosis decrease
    • ⋄ deterioration of collagen and elastin fibers (wrinkles)
    • ⋄ sebaceous sweat glands less active
    • ⋄ hair follicles inactive
    • ⋄ melanocytes die
  34. The skeleton stores excess calcium (Ca+) which is essential for?
    blood clotting
  35. what is the matrix of bone made of?
    Calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate, and collagen.
  36. compact bone, looks solid but is very precisely structured, what is it made up of?
    • Osteons/Haversian systems.
    • Haversian system: microscopic cylinders of bone matrix with osteocytes in concentric rings around central haversian canals.
  37. what are bone cells called?
    Osteocytes
  38. What does spongy bone have?
    • No Haversian systems
    • contain red bone marrow
  39. What is haversian systems?
    microscopic cylinders of bone matrix with osteocytes in concentric rings around central haversian canals.

  40. Provides smooth surface found on joint surfaces
    articular cartilage
  41. surround bone tissue, a fibrous CT membrane whose collagen fibers merge with those of the tendons.
    periosteum
  42. Classification of Long bones?
    • arms, legs, hands, and feet.
    • (not wrists and ankles)
  43. What is yellow bone marrow?
    adipose tissue
  44. The shaft of the long bone?
    diaphysis
  45. The ends of the long bone?
    • Proximal epiphysis (upper)
    • Distal epiphysis (lower)
  46. What are short bone?
    wrists & ankles
  47. What are flat bones?
    ribs, shoulder blades, hip bones, and cranial bones.
  48. what is irregular bones?
    the vertebrae and facial bone
  49. Define osteoblasts?
    • Osteo - bone
    • blast - growing/producing cell
  50. what is ossification?
    the production of bone matrix
  51. in gestation, when does ossification begin?
    3rd month/12 week.
  52. in embryonic growth of bone, cranial and facial bones are first made of?
    fibrous CT
  53. in embryonic growth of bone, all other bones are first made of?
    cartilage
  54. reabsorb bone matrix to form marrow canal?
    osteoclasts
  55. Vitamin D is important in the absorption of?
    Calcium
  56. Vitamin C & A is important for?
    Calcification
  57. cell division, protein synthesis, calcium metabolism and ATP production are all important factors of?
    Hormones.
  58. What is exercise stress?
    healthy levels of exercises can help in bone growth.
  59. What is part of the axial (axis of the body) skeleton?
    skull, vertebral column, rib cage
  60. What is part of the appendicular (appendages) skeleton?
    arms, legs, shoulder, pelvic girdles
  61. What is synathrosis type of joints?
    immovable (cranial structure)
  62. what is amphiarthrosis type of joint?
    slightly moveable joint (vertebra)
  63. what is diarthrosis type of joints?
    free movable joints: ball & socket, hinge, condyloid, pivot, gliding, saddle
  64. prevents friction as bones move
    synovial fluid
  65. small sacs of synovial fluid permits tendons to slide easily
    bursea (bursas)
  66. In the stratum germinativum, vitamin D is formed from _____ on exposure to UV rays of sunlight.
    Cholesterol
  67. the living keratinocytes are able to synthesize antimicrobial peptides called? produced following an injury to skin. part of inflammation process.
    Defensins
  68. the protein in epidermal cells that make the skin relatively waterproof is?
    Keratin
  69. Inflammatory response characteristic of allergies?
    Hives
  70. this will seperate layers of the epidermis or seperate the epidermis from dermis, tissue fluid may collect.
    blister
  71. if skin is subjected to pressure, the rate of mitosis in the stratum germinativum will increase and create thicker epidermis
    callus
  72. made primarily from amino acid tyrosine.
    the pigment called melanin
  73. in sensory receptors, heat, cold, itch, and pain the receptors are?
    free nerve endings
  74. in receptors, the receptors responsible for touch and pressure are called?
    encapsulated nerve endings.
  75. in types of bone tissue, these "legs" are cytoplasmic extensions of osteocytes through microscopic _____ in the matrix.
    canaliculi or "little canal"
  76. Bone matrix is produced by cells called?
    osteoblasts
  77. A baby has areas of fibrous connective tissue remaining between the bones of the skull. it permits compression of the baby's head during birth w/o breaking the still thin cranial bones.
    Fontanels.
  78. In the long bone, where does growth occur?
    epiphyseal discs
  79. The body's energy-storage tissue communicates with the body's weight-bearing tissue. bone tissue communicates in return.
    chemical communication.
  80. covering the rest of the bone is the periosteum, a fibrous connective tissue membrane whose collage fibers merge with those of the _____ & _____.
    Tendons and Ligaments.
  81. Vertebrae that are within the neck and how many?
    Cervical vertebrae (7)
  82. Vertebrae that are articulate with the ribs on the posterior side of the trunk and how many?
    Thoracic vertebrae (12)
  83. the largest and strongest bones of the spine found in the small of back and how many total?
    Lumbar vertebrae (5)
  84. permits the articulation of the two hip bones. fusion of 5 vertebrae
    sacrum
  85. the tailbone, some muscles of the perineum are anchored to it.
    coccyx

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