PATHOLOGY RESPIRATORY.txt

Card Set Information

Author:
rere_girl4ever
ID:
291486
Filename:
PATHOLOGY RESPIRATORY.txt
Updated:
2014-12-13 21:21:46
Tags:
PATHOLOGY RESPIRATORY
Folders:
PATHOLOGY RESPIRATORY.txt
Description:
PATHOLOGY RESPIRATORY.txt
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user rere_girl4ever on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. What is a Spontaneous pneumothorax? Who does it occur most frequently in and why?
    • Accumulation of air in the pleural space
    • Occurs most frequently in tall, thin, young males because of rupture of apical blebs.
    • PRESENTATION: Unilateral chest pain and dyspnea, unilateral chest expansion,  tactile fremitus, hyperresonance, diminished breath sounds, all on the affected side
  2. What is a Tension pneumothorax? What causes it?
    • Usually occurs in setting of trauma or lung infection.
    • Air is capable of entering pleural space but not exiting. Trachea deviates away from affected lung.
    • PRESENTATION: Unilateral chest pain and dyspnea, unilateral chest expansion,  tactile fremitus, hyperresonance, diminished breath sounds, all on the affected side
  3. In this type of pneumothorax, air is capable of entering pleural space but not exiting.
    • Tension pneumothorax
    • Usually occurs in setting of trauma or lung infection.
  4. In this type of pneumothorax, the trachea deviates away from affected lung.
    • Tension pneumothorax- Air is capable of entering pleural space but not exiting
    • Usually occurs in setting of trauma or lung infection.
  5. In this type of pneumothorax, the apical blebs are ruptured.
    Spontaneous pneumothorax
  6. What are Pleural effusions? What are the three types?
    • Excess accumulation of fluid between the two pleural layers which cause? restricted lung expansion during inspiration.
    • Transudate, Exudate, Lymphatic
  7. What is Transudate Pleural Effusion?
    • Pleural effusion- Excess accumulation of fluid between the two pleural layers which cause? restricted lung expansion during inspiration.
    • Transudate: Decreased protein content.
    • Due to CHF, nephrotic syndrome, or hepatic cirrhosis
  8. This type of pleural effusion exhibits decreased protein content.
    Transudate- Due to CHF, nephrotic syndrome, or hepatic cirrhosis
  9. This type of pleural effusion is due to CHF
    Transudate- Decreased protein content.
  10. This type of pleural effusion is due to Nephrotic syndrome
    Transudate-Decreased protein content.
  11. This type of pleural effusion is due to Hepatic cirrhosis
    Transudate- Decreased protein content.
  12. What is Exudate Pleural Effusion?
    • Pleural effusion- Excess accumulation of fluid between the two pleural layers which cause? restricted lung expansion during inspiration
    • Exudate: Increased protein content, cloudy.
    • Due to malignancy, pneumonia, collagen vascular disease, trauma (occurs in states of  vascular permeability).
    • Must be drained in light of risk of infection.
  13. This type of pleural effusion exhibits increased protein content.
    • Exudate
    • Due to malignancy, pneumonia, collagen vascular disease, trauma (occurs in states of  vascular permeability).
    • Must be drained in light of risk of infection.
  14. This type of pleural effusion is due to Malignancy.
    • Exudate: Increased protein content, cloudy.
    • Lymphatic: Milky appearing, increased triglyceride
  15. This type of pleural effusion is due to Pneumonia.
    Exudate: Increased protein content, cloudy.
  16. This type of pleural effusion is due to Collagen vascular disease.
    Exudate: Increased protein content, cloudy.
  17. This type of pleural effusion is due to Trauma
    Exudate: Increased protein content, cloudy.
  18. What is Lymphatic Pleural Effusion?
    Pleural effusion- Excess accumulation of fluid between the two pleural layers which cause? restricted lung expansion during inspiration
  19. Lymphatic/ Chylothorax: Milky appearing fluid; increased triglycerides
    Due to thoracic duct injury from trauma, malignancy.
  20. This type of pleural effusion is milky appearing and has increased triglyceride.
    • Lymphatic/ Chylothorax
    • Due to thoracic duct injury from trauma, malignancy.
  21. This type of pleural effusion is due to thoracic duct injury from trauma, malignancy.
    Lymphatic/ Chylothorax: Milky appearing fluid; increased triglycerides
  22. Describe the presentation of Lobar Pneumoniae. What are the common casaul organisms?
    • S. pneumoniae most frequently, Legionella, Klebsiella
    • Intra-alveolar exudate ?consolidation; may involve entire lung
  23. ?In this type of pneumonia, there is consolidation.
    Lobar pneumoniae
  24. Describe the presentation of Bronchopneumonia. What are the common casaul organisms?
    • S. pneumoniae, S. aureus, H. influenzae, Klebsiella
    • Acute inflammatory infiltrates from bronchioles into adjacent alveoli; patchy distribution involving one or more lobes.
  25. In this type of pneumonia, there are inflammatory infiltrates which form a patchy distribution.
    Bronchopneumonia
  26. Describe the presentation of Interstitial (atypical) pneumonia. What are the common casual organisms?
    • Viruses (influenza, RSV, adenoviruses), Mycoplasma, Legionella, Chlamydia
    • Diffuse patchy inflammation localized to interstitial areas at alveolar walls; distribution involving one or more lobes.
  27. In this type of pneumonia, there are diffuse intersitial infiltrates.
    Atypical/ Interstitial pneumonia
  28. Describe the characteristics and histology of Bronchial carcinoid tumor.
    • Symptoms usually due to mass effect; occasionally carcinoid syndrome (5-HT secretion ? flushing, diarrhea, wheezing).
    • Nests of neuroendocrine cells
    • Chromogranin A positive
  29. This type of Lung cancer is occasionally due to carcinoid syndrome (5-HT secretion ? flushing, diarrhea, wheezing).
    Bronchial carcinoid tumor
  30. A distinctive feature of this type of lung cancer is nests of neuroendocrine cells.
    Bronchial carcinoid tumor
  31. This type of lung cancer is chromogranin A positive.
    Bronchial carcinoid tumor
  32. Describe the characteristics and histology of Large cell carcinoma.
    • Peripheral Highly anaplastic undifferentiated tumor; poor prognosis. Less responsive to chemotherapy; removed surgically.
    • Pleomorphic giant cells.
  33. This type of lung cancer tumor is characteristic of Pleomorphic giant cells.
    Large cell carcinoma
  34. Describe the characterstics and histology of Small cell (oat cell) carcinoma. How do we treat?
    • May produce ACTH, ADH, or Antibodies against presynaptic Ca2+ channels (Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome).
    • Amplification of myc oncogenes common.
    • Inoperable; treat with chemotherapy.
    • Neoplasm of neuroendocrine Kulchitsky cells ?(small dark blue cells).
  35. What are Kulchitsky cells and in which type of lung cancer are they found?
    • Kulchitsky cells -small dark blue cells
    • Small cell (oat cell) carcinoma
  36. This type of lung cancer may produce ACTH.
    Small cell (oat cell) carcinoma
  37. This type of lung cancer may produce ADH.
    Small cell (oat cell) carcinoma
  38. This type of lung cancer may produce antibodies against presynaptic Ca2+ channels.
    Small cell (oat cell) carcinoma
  39. This type of lung cancer can cause Amplification of myc oncogenes.
    Small cell (oat cell) carcinoma
  40. This type of lung cancer is chatacteristic of small dark blue cells.
    • Kulchitsky cells -small dark blue cells
    • Small cell (oat cell) carcinoma
  41. Describe the characteristics and histology of Squamous cell carcinoma
    • Central Hilar mass arising from bronchus
    • Cavitation; Cigarettes; hyperCalcemia (produces PTHrP).
    • Keratin pearls and intercellular bridges
  42. This type of lung cancer presents as a central hilar mass arising from bronchus.
    Squamous cell carcinoma
  43. This type of lung cancer produces parathyroid hormone–related protein.
    • Squamous cell carcinoma
    • Hypercalcemia
  44. This type of lung cancer produces hypercalcemia.
    Squamous cell carcinoma - parathyroid hormone–related protein
  45. This type of lung cancer is characteristic of Keratin pearls and intercellular bridges.
    Squamous cell carcinoma
  46. Describe the characteristics and histology of Adenocarcinoma of the Lung.
    • Activating mutations include k-ras, EGFR, and ALK.
    • Associated with hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (clubbing).
    • Bronchioloalveolar subtype (adenocarcinoma in situ): CXR often shows hazy infiltrates similar to pneumonia; excellent prognosis.
    • Bronchioloalveolar subtype: grows along alveolar septa causing apparent “thickening” of alveolar walls.
  47. What mutations are associated with Adenocarcinoma of the Lung?
    Activating mutations include k-ras, EGFR, and ALK.
  48. This type of lung cancer is associated with clubbing of the digits.
    • Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (clubbing).
    • Adenocarcinoma of the lung
  49. This type of lung cancer grows along alveolar septa --> apparent “thickening” of alveolar walls,
    Adenocarcinoma of the lung
  50. What are the sites of metastases from lung cancer?
    • Adrenals
    • Brain
    • Bone (pathologic fracture)
    • Liver (Jaundice, hepatomegaly).
  51. Which lung cancer types are associated with smoking?
    All except bronchial carcinoid are associated with smoking.

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview