Chem 10 Finals

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Chem 10 Finals
2014-12-14 23:56:24

Chem 10 Finals
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  1. SI Unit of Gas
    Pascal (Pa)
  2. IMF
    • Intermolecular Forces
    • Attractive forces between molecules which hold them together
  3. Types of IMF's
    • Dipole-dipole
    • Hydrogen-bonding
    • London dispersion
  4. Dipole-dipole IMF
    Between 2 POLAR molecules
  5. Determine if molecules are polar
    • Have to be both!
    • No lone pairs on central atom
    • All external atoms are identical
  6. Hydrogen-bonding IMF
    Super polar molecules which contain either an H combined with and F, O, N
  7. London Dispersion IMF
    • AKA Vander Waals forces
    • Occur between all molecules but are the only IMF's between non-polar molecules
  8. Strength of IMF
    • From weak to strong:
    • London Dispersion
    • Dipole-dipole
    • hydrogen bonding
  9. Endothermic
    • Absorbs heat (melting)
    • Lives on reactant side
  10. Exothermic
    • Releases heat (freezing)
    • Live on product side
  11. Heat of Fusion
    • Amount of heat energy required to melt 1 mol of a substance
    • Measured in kJ/mol
  12. Heat of Vaporization
    • Amount of energy required to boil 1 mol of a substance
    • Measured in kJ/mol
  13. Heat of fusion and vaporization
    The heat energy required to overcome the IMF's in a substance
  14. Phase change
    No temp change occurs, heat is being used to separate molecules
  15. Viscosity
    • Resistance of liquid to flow
    • As IMF inc, Viscosity inc.
  16. Vapor Pressure and Volatility
    • Every time you have a liquid there is enough energy to send some of those molecules into gas form.
    • As IMF inc, Pvap dec
  17. Solutions
    A homogeneous mixture of 2 or more pure substances
  18. Solvent
    Greater substance, more quantity
  19. Solute
    • Dissolved in solution
    • Less quantity
  20. Chemical Kinetics
    A study of reaction rates
  21. Collision Theory of Reactions
    For a reaction to occur, reactant molecules must collide together with the correct orientation and enough energy
  22. Energy
    Reacatant molecules must collide with a minimum amount of energy in order to form products
  23. Activation energy (Ea)
    Minimum amount of energy to activate when colliding
  24. Factors that influence reaction rates
    • Change:
    • Reactant concentrations
    • Reactant surface are
    • Temperature of a reaction
    • Use a catalyst
  25. Reactant concentrations
    • Only for aq and gas
    • reactants inc = rate inc
  26. Reactant surface area
    • Only for Solid and aq
    • Are inc = rate inc
  27. Temperature Reaction
    Raise temp = move faster = rate inc
  28. Catalyst
    • Substance used to speed up a reaction, can be reused
    • Transition metals are often used as catalysts
  29. Chemical equilibrium
    • Natural outcome of such reactions
    • Can be reversible reactions
  30. Le Chatelier's Principle
    If stress is applied to a reversible reaction at equilibrium, the reaction will shift in a direction to minimize the effect of the stress and restore equilibrium
  31. Arrhenius Acids
    Acids dissociate in water producing free proton cations
  32. Bronsted-Lowry Acid
    An acid is a proton donor
  33. Strong Acids
    Completely Ionize in aq solution
  34. Weak Acids
    Slightly ionize in aq solution
  35. 6 Strong Acids
    • Sulfuric Acid - H2SO4
    • Nitric Acid - HNO3
    • Hydrocloric Acid - HCl
    • Hydrobromic Acid - HBr
    • Hydroiodic Acid - HI
    • Perchloric Acid - HClO4
  36. Arrhenius Base
    Bases dissociate in water producing free OH- in solutions
  37. Bronsted-Lowry Bases
    A base is a proton acceptor
  38. Strong Base
    Completely ionize in aq solution, which includes only soluble MOH
  39. 7 Strong Bases
    • All Group 1A except first (H) and last (Fr)
    • and Sr(OH)2, Ba(OH)2
    • All B-L are bases (except acids)
  40. Weak Bases
    • Insoluble MOH (arrhenius bases)
    • Al(OH)3
    • Zn(OH)2
  41. Arrhenius Acid-Base Reactions
    Double Displacement neutralization
  42. Bronsted-Lowry Acid-Base Reactions
    Reactions involve a transfer of a proton from and acid to the base and they produce conjugate acids and bases
  43. Amphoteric
    Can act as an acid or a base depending on it's environment
  44. pH Scale
    • pH 1-14.
    •      Below 7 = acid
    •      Above 7 = base
    • pH 1x10-14
    •      Same concept as above at 7
  45. Buffers
    Solutions that resist changes to pH, even when you dump strong acid and bases in them
  46. Redox Reaction
    Involve transfer of Electrons from one reactant to another
  47. Oxidized
    Loses e-
  48. Reduced
    Gaines e-
  49. Oxidizing agent
    Takes the e- from the oxidized
  50. Reducing agent
    Gives e- to reduced
  51. Redox Reaction Neumonic
    • OIL RIG
    • Oxidation is loss e-, reduction is gain e-
  52. Equilibrium Shifts
    • Change in concentration of reactant or product, the reaction will shift towarddec. , shift away from inc