Testicular germ cell tumors.txt

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rere_girl4ever
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291547
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Testicular germ cell tumors.txt
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2014-12-14 12:39:34
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Testicular germ cell tumors
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Testicular germ cell tumors.txt
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Testicular germ cell tumors.txt
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  1. What are the risk factors for Testicular germ cell tumors?
    Risk factors: cryptorchidism, Klinefelter syndrome.
  2. What is a differential diagnosis for testicular mass that does not transilluminate?
    Cancer
  3. Seminoma
    • Large cells in lobules with watery cytoplasm and a “fried egg” appearance. 
    • Increased placental ALP (Alkaline Phosphatase)
  4. Large cells in lobules with watery cytoplasm and a “fried egg” appearance are characteristic of?
    Seminoma
  5. This testicular germ cell tumor has increased placental ALP (Alkaline Phosphatase).
    Seminoma
  6. Decribe the findings of a Yolk sac (endodermal sinus) tumor.
    • Yellow, mucinous.
    • Aggressive malignancy of testes, analogous to ovarian yolk sac tumor.
    • Schiller- Duval bodies resemble primitive glomeruli. Most common testicular tumor in boys < 3 years old.
  7. This testicular germ cell tumor has Schiller- Duval bodies which resemble primitive glomeruli.
    Yolk sac (endodermal sinus) tumor
  8. Describe the findings of Choriocarcinoma.
    • Increased hCG.
    • Disordered syncytiotrophoblastic and cytotrophoblastic elements.
    • Hematogenous metastases to lungs and brain (may present with “hemorrhagic stroke” due to bleeding into the metastasis.
    • May produce gynecomastia or symptoms of hyperthyroidism (hCG is an LH and TSH analog)
  9. This testicular germ cell tumor has Increased hCG.
    Choriocarcinoma
  10. Disordered syncytiotrophoblastic and cytotrophoblastic elements are characteristic of which testicular germ cell tumor?
    Choriocarcinoma.
  11. What are the complications that can arise from a Choriocarcinoma?
    Hematogenous metastases to lungs and brain (may present with “hemorrhagic stroke” due to bleeding into the metastasis.
  12. This testicular germ cell tumor may produce gynecomastia.
    • Choriocarcinoma (hCG is an LH and TSH analog)
    • Leydig cell
  13. This testicular germ cell tumor may produce symptoms of hyperthyroidism.
    Choriocarcinoma
  14. Describe the findings of Teratoma.
    • Unlike in females, mature teratoma in adult males may be malignant. Benign in children.
    • Increased hCG and/or AFP in 50% of cases
  15. Decribe the findings of Embryonal carcinoma.
    • Malignant, hemorrhagic mass with necrosis; painful; worse prognosis than seminoma.
    • Often glandular/papillary morphology.
    • May be associated with increased hCG and normal AFP levels when pure (increased AFP when mixed)
  16. Testicular germ cell tumor with glandular/papillary morphology?
    Embryonal carcinoma
  17. Describe the findings of Leydig cell tumor
    Contains Reinke crystals; usually androgen producing, gynecomastia in men, precocious puberty in boys. Golden brown color.
  18. This testicular germ cell tumor contains Reinke crystals.
    Leydig cell tumor
  19. This testicular germ cell tumor Precocious puberty in boys.
    Leydig cell tumor
  20. Describe the findings Sertoli cell tumor
    Androblastoma from sex cord stroma.
  21. Describe the findings of Testicular lymphoma
    Most common testicular cancer in older men. Not a primary cancer, arises from lymphoma metastases to testes. Aggressive.
  22. Androblastoma from sex cord stroma is characteristic of which testicular germ cell tumor?
    Sertoli cell tumor
  23. Most common testicular cancer in older men?
    Testicular lymphoma
  24. Testicular masses that can be transilluminated?
    • Hydrocele— fluid 2º to incomplete obliteration of processus vaginalis
    • Spermatocele—dilated epididymal duct
  25. What causes a Hydrocele?
    Fluid in testicle due to incomplete obliteration of processus vaginalis
  26. What causes Spermatocele?
    Fluid in testicle due to dilated epididymal duct
  27. Bowen disease
    In penile shaft, presents as leukoplakia
  28. Erythroplasia of Queyrat
    Cancer of glans, presents as erythroplakia
  29. Bowenoid papulosis
    Presents as reddish papules

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